Anatomy And Physiology And Describe Their Subdivisions

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1) Define anatomy and physiology and describe their subdivisions.
- Anatomy studies the structure of body parts and their relationships to one another. Body structures can be seen, felt, and examined closely.
- Gross, or macroscopic, anatomy: Study of large body structures visible to the naked eye, such as the heart, lungs and kidneys.
- Regional anatomy, all the structures (muscles, bones, blood vessels, nerves, etc.) in a particular region of the body, such as the abdomen or leg, are examined at the same time. - Systemic anatomy- Body structure is studied system by system. When studying the cardiovascular system, you would examine the heart and the blood vessels of the entire body. - Surface anatomy- Study of internal structures as
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For example, bones can support and protect body organs because they contain hard mineral deposits. Blood flows in one direction through heart because heart has valves that prevent backflow.
3) Name the different levels of structural organization that make up the human body, and explain their relationships.
1. Chemical level- atoms combine to form molecules.
2. Cellular level- molecules, in turn, associate in specific ways to form organelles, basic components of the microscopic cells. Cells are smallest units of living things.
3. Tissue level- Tissue are groups of similar cells that have a common function. The four basic tissue types:
- Epithelium- covers body surfaces and lines its cavities.
- Muscle provides movement.
- Connective tissue supports and protects body organs.
- Nervous tissue provides a means of rapid internal communication by transmitting electrical impulses.
4. Organ level- Organs are made up of different types of tissues. Organ is a discrete structure composed of at least two tissue types that performs a specific function for the body.
5. Organ system level- Organs that work together to accomplish a common purpose make up an organ system.
6. Organismal level represents the sum total of all structural levels working together to keep us alive. Contains organism, the living human being.
4) List the 11 organ systems of the body, identify their components, and briefly explain the major functions of each

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