Anatomy Physiology Of The Special Senses

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Yin Ma AANT316 Paper 5 – Anatomy/Physiology of the Special Senses (vision/auditory) Color Perception Visual processing in our brain cannot be done without actual vision. The anatomy of the eye is carefully arranged with all the parts that assist our vision in an optimal way. A layer of connective tissue called the sclera surrounds the eyeball. Underneath it is the choroid, which is rich in blood vessels that supply the eye. Attached to this layer is the lens by cililary muscles. The lens focus light to the retina and the amount of light entering is controlled by pupil dilation or constriction. Pupil dilation and constriction is regulated by the iris of the eye which consist of two layers of smooth muscle layers that contract or constrict to increase or decrease the diameter of the pupil respectively. The retina is the inner most layer of the eye. It the main site of photoreceptors that convert light energy into electrical energy where the information gets sent to the brain and is what we perceive as vision. (Marieb, 2014) Two types of photoreceptors can be found in the retina, the rods and cones. Rods are mainly responsible for scoptic vision thus mostly reactive in dim lighting. Cones are responsible for photopicvision, which provides color under bright light conditions. When it is dark out, only the rods are active so you see monochromatic vision. There are three types of cones S, M and L that respond to different wavelengths. Each rod and cone contains two parts the
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