Though they had some different qualities, Classical China and India were very similar. The complexities of both India and China’s social hierarchy systems were very different. However their religious views and ideas were similar, and they both began to decline but were able to recover and maintain stability.
Documents 3, 4, and 5 all show that their cultures incorporated their values into their respective laws, governments, and methods of exerting political power. Clearly, all of these documents incorporated their respective cultures’ values into their governments and methods for asserting their political power. Despite this common trait, these documents can be grouped by their cultures’ differences in government. Documents 2, 5, and 6 show that their cultures had very liberal governments while documents 3 and 4 show that their cultures had strict governments. The Greeks had a very lenient form of government, a democracy, while the Confucian Chinese believed that humans were naturally inclined towards being good. Finally, the Romans had a liberal government which allowed almost anyone to become citizens, even people who weren’t Romans. In contrast with these lenient governments, the Legalist Chinese and the Indians under King Ashoka’s rule had strict laws which firmly controlled the citizens. The Legalists believed their ruler should govern his people by giving out strict punishments or rewards while King Ashoka passed strict edicts which firmly controlled the people through officials who reported back to the
India and China are two republics that have experienced very opposing political regimes throughout history. China has been fundamentally stable country with a lack of a distinct authority figure (Desai, 2003). Being a single party state China has been controlled by the Chinese Communist Party since the 5th National Congress held in 1927 (Wang, 2013). Correspondingly India, have always been a federal parliamentary democratic republic where the President of India elected is head of state and the Prime Minister elected is the head of government (U.S. Central Intelligence Agency, 2013). This
Imagine what it would be like if we didn't have an alphabet or paper. In ancient times they weren't as privileged as we are today. They had to be creative and think of a way that they could communicate with the resources they had. Writing has been very important in all civilizations and is a symbol of upper class in most. Dating back to the earliest Egyptian writing in 3300 BCE with hieroglyphs that served different functions with each script. Writing has progressed since then and has evolved to what is known and loved while creating social boundaries. It is very clear to see social boundaries in India and Egypt and how writing only enforced their social class systems.
India’s experiment with democracy has, through the years, proven to be a success. There is an established Constitution that is fair to all the people living in the country, the power of the leadership is vested within the people, and the people are able to voice their opinions without fear. These factors create the foundation on which a democratic nation can stand and continue to build on in. The early leaders of India knew of this, moreover they also knew that it was even more important for India to have these qualities because of its extreme diversity and historical past.
Contrary to a generally accepted consensus for scholars, ancient Chinese government was not merely a form of despotism. Karl Wittfogel, a sinologist and historian, theorized that the civilization of China established an autocracy because of the population’s need to control the water of the region. Wittfogel, himself, categorized China’s form of autocracy as despotism; a tyrannical monarchy. Although, Wittfogel’s two-part thesis of ancient China as an oriental despotism is substantiated by events throughout China’s history, there is considerable evidence that his conclusion may be based on ambiguous findings. There is substantial documentation suggesting China’s leadership was actually a structure of enlightened monarchy created from China’s
The history and evolution of the Indian Civilization, which lasted from 1500 BCE - 600 CE, was based on religion and how it shaped society because there wasn’t a lot of written historical evidence because they did not write as early as other civilizations did.
Buddhism is spread out through South and Southeast Asia, and within these areas both religious and royal institutions were known to support each other in a mutual way.1 The Theravada Buddhist view on Buddhist power and kingship are highly relatable due to the mutual support system. There were particular kings who supported the Buddhist monostatic order in Southeast Asia and King Asoka Maurya was one. The actions of this king set him up to be
Culturally India during the medieval times was based on the affairs for their local institutions. Unlike being run by bigger authority such as the state, communities were more ruled over by smaller factions known as Guilds. These guilds organized and handled the local laws of the land and handled things at the local level. This also gave the locals a sense of belonging and identity. The common cultural theme within the Indian community was that the majority were farmers. These farmers made up the village life, and each farmer usually worked just outside the village on a small plot of land. Everyone worked together, and individual families formed under the head of the family which lead and guided the families in most decisions. The farming life provided the common Indian farmer with a nice since of status within society. Ultimately, the medieval Indian culture is based on many aspects on ways to promote community. These include sailors or fishermen, tradesmen, craftsmen, and farmers. China also had the farming life but the surround culture in the medieval society was more centralized around government. Men worked at trying to be officials and generals. These positions were considered prominent and a noble profession.
‘Hindu law’ was based largely on customary practices and relationships and formulated in a tribal society. It was more about maintaining peace between the tribes rather than protecting the rights of the individual. The acceptance of a monarchical system by these tribes introduced two new features. One, the political structure required by kingship encouraged an element of authoritarianism amongst the law makers. Secondly, the close association of kingship with divinity was projected into the realm of laws and provided a supernatural sanction for the laws whenever necessary. The status of the individual in society came to be conditioned by these new factors. On the other hand the Buddhist tradition originated at the time when the tribal loyalties were changing into territorial loyalty and there was a sharper awareness of political organisation. It had begun as one of a number of
Egyptian and Chinese civilizations are very different due to the culture, economy, and religious beliefs. Indeed, they have multiple differences, yet they have a few similarities. To begin with, Egyptian civilization emerged along the Nile River. Chinese civilization is on the northern part of China's vast central plain. These two civilizations have made a great impact in history. Both civilizations created their own writing, as well as language. Egypt is known for their beautifully sculpted pyramids, which were made for burials, and China is known for the Great Wall of China, which was made for protection from enemies. Additionally, the Egyptians believed that when one was sick, it was due to a curse, unlike the Chinese they believed illness
For this project, the following investigation will attempt to answer the question, “What are the similarities and differences in the roles of geography in ancient Japan and ancient China?” This question is very relevant because it’s important to know the differences in cultures and to know as much about them as possible; especially with cultures as similar as Japan and Chinas’, it’s important to show the differences. It will be showing how geography can affect two cultures in ancient times. The times that will be the main focus of the research will be from 1600 BCE to 600 CE and will be center on the geography and how the geography can affect the people in Japan and China. Using mostly books and websites will make this investigation a reality.
In 1979 the third word-wide wave of democratization was due to the overthrow of Portuagese dictatorship in Europe which spread to Asia during the 1980s. The third word-wide wave of democratization did not however affect the undemocratic East Asian countries as they challenged the notion of demoratization and avocated “Asian Values”. Asian values refers to the strong traditional cultural values such as Buddhism, Taoism, and Confucianism which co-exists in East Asian societies. The purpose of this essay is to explore Confucian culture and how it may affect the operation of democracy in East Asia.
The countries with the two largest populations in the world are India and China. This leads us to wonder how they became so populated and how they became countries. With these two countries we can analyze two major dynasties of their early civilization the Mauryan Empire from India and the Qin (Ch’in) Dynasty. The start of India’s long civilization dates back to the third and fourth millennia, when the Harappan society was thriving. This society was a large, diverse society that covered a vast area of 600,000 sq. miles. Then around 1500 BCE the Harappan civilization collapsed, in which is still a mystery today. After the fall of the Harappan civilization, a nomadic group came in none as the Aryans. They
Increased business globalization, emergence of new economic hubs like BRIC countries (Brazil, Russia, India and China) as well as more intense competition among organizations at the domestic and international level alike over the past two decades, have necessitated the need for studies in the comparative Human Resource Management (HRM) (Budhwar & Sparrow, 2002a). As a result, a growing number of conceptual (Aycan, 2005; Edwards & Kuruvilla, 2005) and empirical studies (Bae, Chen, & Lawler, 1998; Budhwar & Sparrow, 2002b; Easterby-Smith, Malina, & Yuan, 1995) have addressed the configuration of HRM in different