Ancient Near East Essay

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Yunsong Yue
August 3rd, 2017 The term “ancient Near East” was coined out by the British Empire in the 19th-century, geographically covering the modern Middle East that was divided into eight major regions and states: Mesopotamia, ancient Egypt, ancient Iran, Anatolia/asia Minor and Armenian Highlands, the Levant, Cyprus, and the Arabian Peninsula. Ancient Near East begins in the 4th millennium BC and ends either with the Achaemenid Empire in the 6th century BC or with the Alexander the Great in the 4th century BC. This period of history is considered to be the cornerstone of civilization. With agriculture practices advancing, allowing the possibilities of urban development, creating social class, centralized government and empires. The phrase “Near East” represented Ottoman
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Sumer is the earliest civilization known to mankind, stretched from the first settlement of Eridu until the rise of Assyria and Babylon. Akkadian Empire on the other hand, was regarded as the world’s first empire until it was split into Assyria and Babylonia. At the east of Sumer and Akkad, is ancient Elam. Before Elam was part of the Assyrian Empire in the 9th to 7th centuries BC, it is the kingdoms on the Iranian plateau. From 3200 BC to 2700 BC, where the proto-Elamite civilization was heavily influenced by the cultures of the iranian plateau was characterized as the Banesh period. The Amorites, nomadic Semitic people, controlled the west of Euphrates from 3500 BC and eventually settled in Mesopotamia. Middle Bronze Age includes Assyria, Babylonia, Canan, and the Hittite Empire. Assyria became a powerhouse after enduring a short period of Mitanni domination, ruling much of the near east. Babylonia founded by Amorite tribes and was under the rule of Kassites for more than 4 centuries. Canaan was a combination of Ugarit, Kadesh, Megiddo, and Kingdom of Israel. The Hittite Empire dominated Asia minor and the Levant until it was taken over by
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