Andragogy: Adult Learning Theory

1315 Words 6 Pages
First Subtopic: The History and Conceptualization of Andragogy
Edward Lindeman is thought by many to be the founder of contemporary adult education. His work in the area of adult education included the writing of articles, books, public presentations, assistance in the collegiate system as a lecturer of social work and as an associate pastor in the church (Brookfield 1986). Lindeman and Martha Anderson traveled to observe and analyze the German Folk High School system and the worker’s movement. Consequently, Lindeman and Anderson’s comparative research lead to the breakthrough of the German perception of andragogy. Their studies define andragogy as the “true method of adult learning” (1986). In 1968 at Boston University, the initial use of
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“Questions remain as to whether self-directed learning is a characteristic of adult learners, and whether it should be a goal of adult educators to help all adult learners become self-directed" (Knowles, Holton, Swanson, 2011). While SDL has a laid basis of understanding, including learning efforts, the “iceberg” model became distinct during the late 1970s and early 1980s when researchers started to seek new ways to improve knowledge of the self-direction experiences. This examination resulted in two supplementary courses of investigation: the quantitative measurement of self-direction through written means and the practice of qualitative procedures like observation and interviewing (Brockett & Hiemstra 1991).
After quite a few years of widespread duplication of the Hadley approach, it became evident that there was a necessity for more in-depth research on learning projects studies (Hadley 1975). In 1977, Lucy M. Guglielmino developed the innovative Self-Directed Learning Readiness Scale (SDLRS) for a doctoral dissertation at the University of Georgia (Hiemstra & Sisco 1990). The SDLRS was intended to evaluate the degree to which individuals identify themselves to own abilities and outlooks commonly related to SDL. The SDLRS includes a factor investigation by Guglielmino (1990) acknowledging the following eight factors:
• Love of learning;
• Self-concept as an effective, independent learner;
• Tolerance of risk, ambiguity, and complexity in learning;
• Creativity;