Anemia Research Paper

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What is anemia?
Anemia is a medical condition characterized by low red blood cell count or mass (hemoglobin). This can be caused by blood loss, decreased production of red blood cells, or increased red cell destruction. Some common forms of anemia include iron deficiency, vitamin B12 deficiency, thyroid disease, and liver disease. Patients with certain blood or bone marrow cancers may also develop anemia. Individuals with anemia often develop symptoms of when their hemoglobin is very low or there is a rapid drop in hemoglobin.
Symptoms typically fatigue, low energy, exertional shortness of breath, and pale skin. Severe anemia due to hemorrhage may lead to death, particularly in elderly individuals with chronic heart or lung disease.
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The diagnosis of anemia is suggested based on symptoms and physical examination, but is typically confirmed with a CBC (complete blood cell count). Your doctor will also usually order a CMP (comprehensive metabolic panel), thyroid function (TSH, free T4), vitamin B12, iron studies (ferritin, iron saturation, total iron binding capacity), and coagulation studies (PT/INR, PTT).
Other tests may include a urinalysis, heme occult stool study, reticulocyte count, haptoglobin level, SPEP and UPEP (serum and urine protein electrophoresis), and peripheral blood smear
If you are over age 50 and have evidence of iron deficiency anemia, your doctor will likely refer you to a gastroenterologist to undergo an upper endoscopy and colonoscopy. These tests are done in order to rule out gastrointestinal cancer.
If you are having chest pain or difficulty breathing, you doctor may obtain a chest x-ray, EKG (electrocardiogram), and ultrasound of the heart (echocardiogram).
How is anemia treated?
The treatment of anemia is based on its severity. Severe anemia due to blood loss often requires blood transfusion with packed red blood cells. Less urgent forms of anemia may be treated with a variety of therapies depending on their
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