Angina Pectoris Research Paper

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Angina pectoris is a clinical syndrome when the heart does not get enough oxygen from blood and can lead to ischemia.22 Angina is classified into three classes: stable, unstable, and printzmetal/variant.4,16,20
Stable angina is caused by narrowed arteries due to atherosclerosis. It is the most common form of angina. It occurs when there is exertion or effort. Episodes of pain tend to be alike and usually lasts a short time. It can be relieved by rest or anti-anginal drugs.4,16,20
Episodes of pain which tend to be changing in the characters are one of the characteristics of unstable angina. It often occurs at rest times, and more severe and lasts longer than stable angina.4,16,20
Printzmetal/variant angina usually occurs when the body in the
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Chest discomforts like pressure/tightness, burning sensation, choking/breathlessness, and pain are the common symptoms.16,19,20 Other than that, nausea, diaphoresis, and discomfort at other sites such as shoulders, neck, and epigastrum are also the sign and symptoms of angina.16,19,20 Typically it lasts for 1-5 minutes with range 15 second to 15…show more content…
Electrocardiogram (ECG) will detect and records the heart’s electrical activity.16 Stress test and stress echocardiogram also can be performed.16 Last but not least, Computed Tomography (CT) scan can be performed as well.16 It will show h¬-ow much calcium is in the arteries; the level of calcium.16
Albrecht (2013) stated that in the healthy heart, the oxygen is delivered by epicardial vessels and intramyocardial arteries and arterioles, where little resistance to blood flow is found in the epicardial vessels. In angina pectoris patients, based on the pathophysiology, it is simply can be said that there is an imbalance between the myocardial oxygen supply and demand.19,20 Oxygen demand is higher than oxygen supply in the heart.19,20
High oxygen demand can be happened due to heart rate, ventricular pressure and volume that lead to wall tension, and contractility.19 Low oxygen supply can be happened due to coronary blood flow such as diastole duration, aortic diastolic pressure, and coronary vascular resistance.19
The Canadian Cardiovascular Society comes up with a system that is generally accepted to grading angina pectoris. The grading can be seen in table
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