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Ankle Sprains

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Introduction
Ankle sprain injuries are most common in team sports that include contact, jumping, sharp cutting manoeuvres and running, such as football, volleyball, handball and basketball (Fong et al and Thacker et al). Pefanis et al found that 10% to 30% of the injuries recorded in football, basketball and volleyball are ankle sprains.
According to physioroom.com, ankle sprain is the 2nd most common injury footballer players suffer from. Woods et al found that over two seasons in the English football leagues, 11% of the injuries recorded were ankle sprains, and 77% of these involved the lateral ligament complex. They also found that defenders (35%) and midfielders (31%) were the playing positions affected the most. In a UEFA injury study,
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Ankle sprains usually occur in professional football as a result from a tackle, making sharp cutting edge movements, or landing awkwardly after jumping. The most common type of ankle sprain is to the lateral ligaments (anterior talofibular, calcaneofibular and posterior talofibular ligaments) after inversion plantar-flexion and internal rotation of the ankle (85% of all reported ankle injuries).
At the time of the injury the athlete would feel pain on the lateral side of his ankle, and the ankle would show signs of swelling and bruising (the swelling might start on impact, but it could also take a few hours depending on the severity of the injury). A snap or tear sound may be heard, but it is not of diagnostic significance (Tropp et al, Garrick, aofas.org, Khan and Bruker, nsmi.org and Yeung et al).
The ankle sprain could be person related, like when the individual perform poorly executed tackles or cutting manoeuvres to cause the inversion of the ankle. The injury could also be a result of environmental risk factors, like the condition/irregularity of the pitch/field, position the athlete plays in, and foul play (Willems et al and
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