Aside from the Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem and the mosque of Cordoba, the Great Mosque at Damascus is perhaps one of the grandest symbols of Islamic art still standing in the 21st century. The building borrows palatial architecture and is decorated with intense mosaics and paintings; most of which have been destroyed but evidence is still there. Underneath the impressive double decker arches are arrangements of spolia from the Roman Empire and intricate images of a beautiful natural landscape. This landscape, which includes specific buildings but no animals or humans, has been a source of academic debate to find the true meaning. Many scholars believe the landscape is an interpretation of Islamic paradise while other scholars dispute that, claiming it is just a landscape of the nearby area. Klaus Brisch and Maria Georgopoulou argue these sides in their publications on the Great Mosque and ultimately this paper sides with Brisch and critiques Georgopoulou through a geographic and historical lens. The Great Mosque at Damascus does appear to demonstrate the images of Islamic paradise from the geographic perspective of the Umayyad Empire.
Essentially unchanged for more than thirteen centuries, the Dome of the Rock remains one of the world's most beautiful and enduring architectural treasures. Adorned with its magnificent gold dome and elaborate quranic inscriptions, the structure intimately represents the world's second largest religion in a city historically associated with the three Semitic faiths. Representation, however, is not the only effect of this site. Despite its intended purpose, the Dome of the Rock inherently stands as the focal center of a millennium-old religious controversy. Located on what is essentially the world's holiest site (obviously a speculative assertion) and inscribed with proclamations of Islamic religious superiority, the Dome symbolizes far
Islam, a religion of people submitting to one God, seeking peace and a way of life without sin, is always misunderstood throughout the world. What some consider act of bigotry, others believe it to be the lack of education and wrong portrayal of events in media; however, one cannot not justify the so little knowledge that America and Americans have about Islam and Muslims. Historically there are have been myths, many attacks on Islam and much confusion between Islam as a religion and Middle Easter culture that is always associated with it. This paper is meant to dispel, or rather educate about the big issues that plague people’s minds with false ideas and this will only be touching the surface.
The Pantheon is an iconic part of architecture, particularly in the mediterranean. Constructed in Imperial Rome, the Pantheon was an incredible piece that forever influenced the basics of architecture. A similar piece, contemporary to the Pantheon, would be the Dome of the Rock. Found in Jerusalem, the Umayyad caliph built the shrine in the seventh century to serve a function as an Islamic shrine. Being the oldest extant Islamic monument known to man, the Dome of the Rock is sacred to both the Muslim and jewish religions.While being in completely different cultures, the Pantheon and the Dome of the Rock share numerous similarities varying from their functionality to the characteristic style of the domes.
Chapter 14 in the book Traditions and Encounters: A Global Perspective of the Past by Herrry H. Bentley and Herbert F. Ziegler is mainly about Muhammad, the prophet, and his world, the expansion of Islam, economy and society of the early Islamic world, and its values and cultural exchanges.
To begin, a portion of the class lectures have been dedicated to talking about political and religious communities different Islamic time periods. Like many other dynasties that we have discussed, the novel explores individuals, Islamic conceptions of loyalty, and the moral basis of society. Additionally, the author discusses religious classes—“ulama”—in the context of the 10th and 11th century in western Iran and eastern Iraq, which contributes to our understanding of religious groups from class. This novel also relates to class because it discusses the social organization of medieval societies and demonstrates how Muslim urban society in the earlier periods was divided between the rulers—kings—and the
Located at the center of the Temple Mount in the Old City of Jerusalem, the place used to host the First and the Jewish Second Temples, the Dome of the Rock has received the honor of being recognized as “Jerusalem’s most recognizable landmark”, with its octagonal structure and the conspicuous gold-plated roof. Also seen as one of the oldest extant Islamic architectural work, the Dome was originally built to show the Christians that Islam could also have a great monument to rival the Dome of the Anastasis and thus the Muslims would not be dazzled by Christian churches and dome. (Armstrong 1997: 237). If we examine the Dome separately, the very structure in which the Rock, the mosaic decoration and inscriptions comprising the three main parts for understanding its importance, the Rock it encompasses is celebrated for its connection with God by Jewish and Muslim people and the mosaic decorations are considered to be linked with Solomon’s reign and his temple in Islamic context, in turn adding to the interrelatedness of the Dome. As a whole, the change in the Dome’s identity, particularly the shift in its religious meaning from a purely Islamic site, to the space that meant a lot for the Christian Crusaders, then back to an Islamic center, that corresponds perfectly with the Crusaders’ conquest on Muslims and the later triumph of the “jihad” illustrates that its importance also comes from its indication of the rises and falls of Islam and helps prove that it is kinetic as
This semester I have learned a lot of things about the cultures of Medieval Europe, the Medieval Islamic Empires, and the age of European exploration that I think has shaped today’s world. I learned all about how things were in Medieval Europe, Islam, China, Renaissance, and Exploration. This semester I learned about the Feudal System in Medieval Europe, I learned about the encomienda system, and I learned about the five pillars of Islam. All of these things greatly shaped today’s world and are very important pieces of our history.
There is then an octagon of 2 ambulatories on 8 piers and 16 columns that holds the cylinder tightly, as if in a ring. There are four doors, each of them corresponding to the main axes of the Haram al Sharif. An extensive decoration of carved stone, mosaics, painted wood, multi-colored tiles, marble, and carpets covers most of the building, inside and outside. These decorations reflect many different time periods due to the continual need for repair with varying degrees of success , resulting in the accumulation of damage over time. Furthermore, contemporary changes in taste influenced how the building was maintained. The Dome of the Rock’s extraordinary visual impact is a direct result of the mathematical rhythm of its proportions. All of
The source A History of Medieval Islam was written by John Joseph Saunders in 1965. John Joseph (J.J.) Saunders was a British Historian who was especially knowledgeable of Medieval Islamic. J.J. Saunders taught at the
This encyclopedia of Dome of the Rock is written in order to discover history of the first centuries of Islam. Ibn Khaldun in his well-known book, The Introduction wrote that “History makes us acquainted with the conditions of the past nations as they reflected in their national character. It makes us acquainted with the biographies of the prophets and which the dynasties and policies of rulers. Whoever so desires may thus achieve the useful result of being able to imitate historical examples in religious and worldly matters.” Studying historical monuments of Islam enables us to determine the political and social environment of that time and permits us to learn from it. A remarkable matter about this encyclopedia is that the historic monument
Instead, from its onset, Islam spread as a conquering power and remained that way for some time. Explaining it this way, the reader gets a sense of the psychology behind Islam and why, besides being a religious task, spreading Islam is such a goal. By showing the issues Islam faces today in the context of past Islamic traditions, Lewis paints a much clearer picture of the skewed view today’s radicals have and the way they use history to manipulate. He examines influential Muslim voices like Saddam Hussein and Usama Bin Laden, who have used history to give Islam victim status or to claim the continuance of a predecessor’s mission to not only justify terrorist activities, but also to recruit followers. He tells the history of Bin Laden’s statement referring to the “humiliation and disgrace” Islam supposedly has suffered. What Bin Laden was referring to was the defeat of the Ottoman sultanate in 1918 and the imperial presence of Westerners on sacred Muslim lands. Lewis explains the offense many Muslims take to the desecration of their holy lands by foreigners. He describes how the discovery and exploitation of oil in the Holy Land of the Hijaz has exacerbated the growing resentment many Muslims
Using “discourse” about the Middle Ages, contemporary writers are able to give an image of Islam that makes it seem inherently medieval, violent, and dark without realizing that other major religions have already done similar acts of violence. By referencing the Middle Ages alongside Islam, contemporary writers are able to create a stereotype of Islam being centered on medieval beliefs while ignoring the fact that every other religion and culture is also composed of archaic beliefs which can be seen through Ibn Fadlan. The only true difference is how the