Annotated Bibliography : Memory Manipulation

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Memory Manipulation:
Molecular Engram Modification for the Forgotten Millions of people on this Earth struggle daily with diseases that lie out of their control. Some with the involuntary and gradual amnesia of loved ones, others with memories that plague and haunt them on the loneliest of nights, and more. These issues are ironically forgotten those unaffected, and all stem from the same place- the brain’s memory engram cells. Engram cells are encoded neural tissue that provides a trace of memory and therefore is responsible for memory retrieval (1). Working in the lab with the implantation of memories and manipulating said engram cells of rodents can, over time, develop into altering human cells and activating memory retrieval to
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Then, the mice would experience secondary exposure to a contrasting environment and associate it with a painful memory. The test subjects would then be returned to their initial environment in which no they were unharmed. Through this procedure, the rodents were given false memories through manipulation as they reacted negatively to the area in which nothing occurred. Tonegawa commonly used shocking the mice as his method yet other studies used alternative methods as well. This worked due to the optical reactivation of neurons that took part in the trauma while in the location in which no pain was delivered (4). Experiments also revealed that the configuration of true and false memories set off similar molecular changes. With the ability to implant false memories, a variety of possibilities appear. As several studies (including Tonegawa’s) acknowledged chemical compounds for application in subduing or even eliminating the memories of mice, hypothetical treatments for addiction, post-traumatic stress disorder, etc. for humans became realistic (6). Research has also been conducted involving the development of pharmacological strategies enhancing adult hippocampal neurogenesis in mouse models of Alzheimer’s with the focus on restoring memory and thoughts of cell therapeutic intervention through endogenous cell manipulation; therefore, suggesting gradual movement in the direction of a societal impact as

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