Annotated Bibliography : Programmed Cell Death

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By utilizing these two transgene expressions in a synchronized way, the adenovirus is granted the ability to replicate, specifically when it is within a tumor cell. The promoter hTERT controls the specificity of E1a’s ability for viral replication. This assures that the adenovirus only replicates within cancer cells because the gene marker is only triggered where the hTERT expression is prevalent, which, as indicated earlier, is only within cancerous cells. Another impressive dimension that adds to the efficacy of Ad-Apoptin-hTERT-E1a is the adenoviruses’ ability to attack tumor cells through the addition of the therapeutic transgene expression Apoptin. Apoptin is a protein that is known to induce the process of apoptosis specifically within malignant cells, but not in regular cells [3]. Apoptosis is often called “programmed cell death” because it is a process in which cells that are no longer needed within an organism are recognized and then destroyed. Inserting this transgene expression into the genome of Ad-Apoptin-hTERT-E1a creates a cancer specific adenovirus equipped with dual threat potential. With these transgene expressions inserted into the genome of an adenovirus, Ad-Apoptin-hTERT-E1a, is a genetically modified oncolytic adenovirus that has been created which can theoretically eradicate cancer cells through both lysis and apoptosis, but not negatively effect normal cells within the host. 4. Case Study: Clinical Analysis of Oncolytic Adenovirus A study by

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