Antecedents and Consequences of Reactions to Developmental 360

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Journal of Vocational Behavior 66 (2005) 532–548 www.elsevier.com/locate/jvb

Antecedents and consequences of reactions to developmental 360° feedbackq
Leanne E. Atwater*, Joan F. Brett
School of Management, Arizona State University West, 4701 W. Thunderbird Road, Glendale, AZ 85306-4908, USA Received 25 November 2003

Abstract This study investigated the factors that influence leadersÕ reactions to 360° feedback and the relationship of feedback reactions to subsequent development activities and changes in leader behavior. For leaders with low ratings, those who agreed with others about their ratings were less motivated than those who received low ratings and over rated themselves. For leaders with high ratings, agreement between self
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Brett and Atwater (2001) supported this notion to some extent in their study of reactions to 360° feedback. They found that individuals reacted to negative 360° feedback with anger and discouragement, though positive feedback did not result in positive affect. The purpose of this study is to examine the factors that influence leadersÕ reactions to feedback and the relationships between reactions and subsequent development activities and behavior change. (Note we use the term leader in this study to refer to an individual holding a supervisory or ‘‘leadership’’ position). 1.1. Characteristics of the feedback and reactions to feedback ManagersÕ reactions to feedback may depend not only on the feedback itself (e.g., whether it is positive or negative), but also on the extent to which the feedback is discrepant from the managerÕs self-view. For example, control theory (Carver & Scheier, 1982) and feedback intervention theory (FIT) (Kluger & DeNisi, 1996) suggest that behavior is regulated by comparisons of feedback to goals or standards. One of the

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L.E. Atwater, J.F. Brett / Journal of Vocational Behavior 66 (2005) 532–548

goals or standards an individual may use is their self-appraisal or self-rating. When a discrepancy between behavior and a standard is noted, according to FIT, people are motivated to reduce the discrepancy. Taylor et al. (1984) propose that when self and other ratings are discrepant the

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