Antibiotics Combat Infectious Bacteria

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Introduction:
Antibiotics have the ability to kill or hinder the growth of bacteria. Antibiotics contain compounds that are naturally produced by organisms to combat diseases caused by microbes. Discovery of penicillin by Sir Alexander Fleming became the first stepping stone of many new antibiotics of today’s modern medicine. Antibiotics typically invade the very components that make up bacteria, such as cell walls and metabolic pathways (Sato et al., 2014). However, frequent mutations of bacteria cause today’s strains to become more resistant. One of many ways which bacteria undergo mutation is through horizontal transfer of genes (Lindsay J.A., 2013). The war against disease is a battle that humanity has fought for centuries, and only
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Polymyxin B is known to only be effective against Gram negative bacteria, which was consistent with the collected data. Gram positive effective antibiotics and protein synthesis inhibitors such as azithromycin and tetracycline were expected to be ineffective to Gram negative bacteria, along with DNA-dependent RNA polymerase inhibitor such as rifampin. However, contrasting results were depicted after 48 hours of incubation at 37⁰C. The bacteria appeared to be susceptible to azithromycin when the bacteria were anticipated to be resistant. This discrepancy could be explained through the molecular mechanism of azithromycin. Azithromycin induces adenine methylation in the rRNA in the 50S ribosomal subunit, and past experiments have indicated that it has a higher affinity for the erythromycin binding site for the ribosome to cause azithromycin to be more susceptible in Gram negative bacteria (Retsema et al., 1987). In addition, a polypeptide inhibitor such as penicillin was anticipated to be susceptible to the Gram negative bacteria, but it was displayed to be resistant. Penicillin is known to be a β-lactam antibiotic consisting of β-lactam ring that inhibits the cell wall synthesis of Enterobacteriaceae. A prevalent mechanism for resistance to β-lactam antibiotic is hyperproduction of β-lactamase (Philippon et al., 2002). Moreover, it is proposed that bacteria are resistant to penicillin due to the formation of microbial colony biofilm (Thomson
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