Antibodies And Acute Humoral Rejection Of All Transplanted Organs

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Antibodies have an important role in rejection of all transplanted organs in a high proportion of most cases. Hyperacute and acute humoral rejection in solid organ transplantation are caused by HLA antibodies, and several studies have shown that the development of HLA-specific antibodies in post-transplant cases associated with worse graft outcome in all solid organ transplants 3. In the recent years, a marker of antibody mediated rejection is the complement protein which is C4d, has been used as an indication of antibody activation. Despite the development of these very sensitive anti-HLA screening assays; using that use soluble HLA antigens bound to microplates or beads in the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and flow cytometric or Luminex assays and crossmatching techniques, antibody-mediated rejection episodes, confirmed by C4d deposition, still occur without detectable HLA antibodies, suggesting a role for non-HLA antibodies in transplant rejection4 . Vimentin and Graft Rejection Vimentin is a non-polymorphic intermediate filament protein generally expressed in cytosol of endothelial, fibroblasts, renal tubular cells, mesangial cells, vascular smooth muscle cells, and renal stromal cells 4 . The most common isoform expressed is composed of three domains that include a “head” domain at the amino terminus, a central “rod” domain, and a “tail” domain at the carboxyl terminus. Although the cytosolic form is by far the most abundant in adult cells, the vimentin

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