rom ancient times to modern day medicine, many people are discovering or rediscovering the amazing health benefits of essential oils. This is especially true as people are looking for natural ways to improve their health and the environment, and avoid potentially dangerous chemicals and pharmaceuticals.
1. Derive a systematic name for the active component of clove oil, and use this to find its common name in The Merck Index or another reference book.
Licorice root is used worldwide as a natural sweetener, as well as a flavoring agent. The main composition of plant Flavonoids and Isoflavonoids act as inhibition platelet aggregation, and anticancer, antioxidant (20). Aly et al.,2005(21) indicate that liqurice have potent anti-inflammatory reduction edema about 78.3 while diclofen about 73.9% also have anti-ulcerogenic activity associated with a reduced acid output and an increased mucin secretion, an increase in prostaglandin E2 release and a decrease in leukotrienes (22). Many volatile oil and vitamins such as B1,B2,B3,B6,C,E, Biotin, Foli acid, Pantothenic acid act as expectorant, laxative, liquiritin act as antitussive (23). Also contain Coumarins Herniarin and umbelliferone (24).moreover plant used for treatment of asthma , chronic fatigue, hormonal disturbance , antiviral, antibacterial , hepatoprotective, anti-oxidant , antiulcer, ant mutagenic, Hypothermic antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, relieve pain , expectorant, hypoglycemia,
The aqueous extract of T. chebula has been shown to enhance antioxidant status in the liver and kidney and effectively modulate oxidative stress of aged rats.The ethanolic fraction of T. chebula enhance the healing rate of gastric lesions induced by indomethacin and also inhibt lipid peroxidation in the gastric mucosal tissue of rats . In addition, the ethanolic extract has been tested against certain multidrug-resistant bacteria, which includes methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus(S. aureus) and extended spectrum β -lactamase-producing enteric bacteria and T. chebula has shown broad-spectrum activity. Also,this extract interact synergistic with tetracycline, chloramphenicol and ciprofloxacin against S. aureus and/or Escherichia coli ( E. coli). The butanol fraction of T. chebula fruit had also broad spectrum activity against six intestinal bacteria, particularly Clostridium perfringens and E. coli . A study has also shown that the aqueous extract from T. chebula inhibit inducible nitric oxide synthesis by de- creasing iNOS protein and iNOS mRNA levels.
Other essential oils like tea tree have been around for many years. This healing oil is used in treating various skin conditions like psoriasis and comes with a very pleasant scent.
Research has long held the traditional belief of the therapeutic benefits of particular plants although terminology has changed quite a bit. For example, basil was described as an herb that "taketh away sorrow" and as "good for the heart" whereas modern terminology now describes it as an antidepressant and/or a prophylactic. It is also important to note that essential oils can cover a wide range of activities, for instance one oil can be a stimulate for one particular body system while being a sedative for
Cinnamon is the second most important spice that is sold throughout the world.1 The word Cinnamon originates from the word cassia. Cassia is the meaning of a plant that mainly contains leguminous genus. Cinnamon bark originates from the culivtated trees of Cinnamomum zeylanicum Nees, Lauraceae.2 Cinnamons usages include: flavoring for foods, medicinal purposes, agricultural needs, and pesticides. Cinnamon does not have a chemical structure, which is replaced for Cinnamaldehyde, which covers 97% of cinnamon. Figure 1 illustrates the chemical structure of Cinnamaldehyde. Terpenoids and isoprene’s are located in the volatile oil of cinnamon, which play a major role in the color and odor of cinnamon. Cinnamon has several constituents that include: Cinnamaldehyde, cinnamic acid, coumarin, linalool, eugenol, and methyl cinnamate. These constituents were analyzed further by using technical processes. The isolation of cinnamon oil has evolved over sever years. The isolation originally began as a liquid-liquid extraction with methylene chloride
The incidences of antimicrobial resistance in human pathogens have increased at an alarming rate worldwide (Tanwar et al., 2014). Nature has been a potential source of medicinal agents for thousands of years and a notable amount of modern drugs have been isolated from natural products, many based on their use in traditional medicine. The relatively lower incidence of adverse reactions to plant preparations compared to modern conventional pharmaceuticals, coupled with their reduced cost, is encouraging both the consuming public and national health care institutions to consider plant medicines as alternatives to synthetic drugs.
Phlomis Younghusbandii Mukerjee is a perennial herb (family Labiatae) and grows wildly in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau of China. It has been widely used to treat colds, coughs, sores ulceration, rheumatoid arthritis, pneumonia, bronchitis and other diseases for thousands years. In this paper, 5 iridoid glycosides (sesamoside, shanzhiside methylester, 7, 8-dehydropenstemoside, penstemoside and 8-O-acetylshanzhiside methylester) and 3 phenylethanoid glycosides (acteoside, alyssonoside, and isoacteoside) in the four samples from different places were analyzed by HPLC. The acetic acid-induced writhing test, the hot plate test, the carrageenan-induced paw edema test, the xylene-induced ear swelling test, and the acetic acid-induced Evans blue leakage
Stop using antibiotic is impossible because of its convenience and wide range of capability to kill microorganism, but if an alternative method or material which has similar or resemble character is found, it may replace antibiotic. ‘Phytochemical and plant extraction’ are expecting that it has antibacterial activity result from diverse plants have
shows the absorption bands which are closely similar to Catechin. FTIR analysis confirms the presence of phenolic compound and flavonoid content. So the present study provide evidences that leaves and bark of Cassia fistula contain bioactive constituents
Along ago, Plants were used as a source of vegetables and fruits only ,but with time it’s leaves, flowers, seed, stems ,bark roots, rhizomes were found to have extracts that can be used for treatments as medicines known as “herbal medicine” or “herbalism”.
In this paper , the antibacterial efficacy of hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol isolated from Alpinia
Spermacoce hispida L. is one of the important medicinal plants used in traditional systems of medicine. It is observed that, several times it is difficult to differentiate the plant from the other allied species from the same genus, Spermacoce, especially, when they are in drug form. Therefore, the present study aims to document the differences in the pharmacognostic characters, preliminary phytochemical analysis and polyphenolic contents from the leaves of four species belonging to the genus Spermacoce, viz. S. hispida L., S. mauritiana O. Gideon, S. stricta L. and S. ocymoides Burm. Transverse section passing through the midrib with lamina on either sides, epidermal characters, leaf constants, organoleptic characters, physicochemical analysis, extractive values and preliminary phytochemical analysis were carried out for all these species. Total Phenolic Content (TPC) by Folin-Ciocalteu method and Total Flavonoids (TF) by AlCl3 method were also estimated from the leaves of all these species. The results indicated that S. hispida can be clearly differentiated from the other selected species on the basis of size and number of epidermal cells, size of trichomes, leaf constants, physicochemical analysis and extractive values. However, it is also found that S. hispida possess TPC at 6.88±0.34 mg CAE/g and 9.17±0.46 mg TAE/g. TF was at 5.98±0.30 mg QE/g. The study will provide information with respect to identification and differentiation selected species of genus Spermacoce.
Medicinal plants are used traditionally in the treatment of various kinds of diseases since time immemorial. The present study was carried out to evaluate the antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of leaves from Elephantopus scaber by using different solvents (ethyl alcohol, acetone and aqueous). The ethyl alcohol, acetone and aqueous extracts of leaves were subjected to phytochemical analyses, which revealed the presence of alkaloids, phenols, flavonoids, saponins, steroids, tannins, coumarins, quinones and glycosides in most of the selected of leaves useing different solvents. Ethyl alcohol ,acetone and aqueous extracts of leaves were investigated for in vitro antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhis, Klebsiella pneumonia, Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, and Candida Albican by well diffusion method by using a different concentrations (20, 40, 60, 80, 100)mg/ml. Ethyl alcohol and acetone extract of leaves showed promising antimicrobial activity against all test organisms. Ethyl alcohol of leaves has the best activity against all test organisms. Found a high effective for ethyl alcohol extract of leaves compared with the other parameters, also it was recorded a high increase for ethyl alcohol of leaves compared with the acetone extract of leaves for a concentrations of (100, 20)mg/ml. The aqueous extract of the leaves has a weak activity against all test organisms and did not inhibit the growth of Klebsiella pneumonia for a