Antimicrobial Resistance : Antibacterial Resistance

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There is no doubt that antimicrobial agents have saved the human kind from a lot infectious diseases. A few years after the discovery of the first antibiotics, scientists made the observation that some organisms could still survive the effects of the antimicrobial agents. That was the beginning of the concern that different microorganisms were getting resistance in their previously harmful agents. That is known today as antimicrobial resistance. (Sosa et al., 2010) Nowadays, Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR) is one of the most severe jeopardies to public health worldwide, especially in some countries such as USA, India and Greece. For instance, in the US, deaths caused by Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), might be more than…show more content…
Moreover, antibiotic-resistant infections are very difficult to treat and most of the times the treatment is really costly. (,2015) The main causes of the problem are two pharmacological issues: (a) wide-spectrum antibiotics and (b) compliance. Wide-spectrum antibiotics are widely used to treat infections, either those caused by several different species or those for which diagnosis is too difficult or takes too much time. Of course, wide spectrum promises a wide range of clinical uses and sales but consequently contributes to resistance as it applies selective pressure. Compliance is another issue that has many aftermaths upon antimicrobial resistance. Patients often either miss drug doses, both by mistake and deliberately, or decide to stop the treatment prematurely when they feel better. In both cases, pathogens which are exposed to subinhibitory concentrations of antibiotics, survive and that consequently results in the greater chances of acquiring resistance. (Sosa et at., 2010) AMR has a great impact to humans globally. Studies have shown that patients’ mortality and length of hospital stay are increased with resistant versus non-resistant pathogens. (Goff, 2011) In addition, healthcare costs are also dramatically higher for patients with antimicrobial-resistant infections. Patients infected with antimicrobial-resistant pathogens have higher costs, approximately US $6,000-30,000, than do patients
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