Essay on Ap Bio Plants

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Roots support photosynthesis and respiration by absorbing minerals and water and by storing organic nutrients. They also anchor the plant. Some roots have mycorrhizae, which increase the surface area and therefore increase the absorption. The endodermis, which is the innermost layer of cells in the root cortex, surrounds the vascular cylinder. It is the passage of minerals from the cortex into the vascular tissue.
The stem has a system of nodes where leaves are attached. They have a waxy coating (epidermis) that prevents water loss. The stem and the roots are the 2 main axes in a vascular plant. Fluids are transported between the roots and the shoots through the stem by the phloem and xylem.
Leaves are the main photosynthetic
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They have vascular tissues for long distance transport like the xylem and phloem. Additionally there is a way for plants to reproduce without requiring water. Another reason is secondary growth with the vascular cambium. The stem or root will grow in diameter and will be thickened, reducing water loss and protecting the surface more fully. The different plant tissues (dermal tissues, vascular tissue and ground tissues) are adoptions as well.
Water flows from high water potential to low water potential. They have three routes for that: the transmembrane route (out of one cell, across a cell wall and into another cell), the symplastic route (via the continuum of cytosol) and the apoplastic route (via cell walls and extracellular spaces). Roots are another way for water uptake and transport (example: mycorrhizae and endodermis). This transport is regulated by the compartmental structure of plants. The concept of transpiration is made possible through adhesion and cohesion.

The plant is required to be able to work at the molecular level, because (as only of many examples) it needs sucrose. Proton pumping and the cotransport of sucrose and H+ are two of the ways for a plant to get its required amounts of sucrose. The plant is also in need of nitrogen for its organic synthesis. It can acquire that by nitrogen-fixing bacteria that convert atmospheric N2 to nitrogenous minerals.
An example for an organ is the tuber or bulb. They
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