Ap European History Outline Chapter 10 Essay example

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Mr. Dunbar
AP European History
Chapter 10 Outline: Renaissance and Discovery

Section One: The Renaissance in Italy * Section Overview * Jacob Burckhardt, a Swiss historian, described the Renaissance as the “prototype of the modern world” in his book Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy (1860) * In Italy blossomed new secular and scientific views * People became to approach the world empirically and draw rational conclusions based on observation * Burckhardt saw the emergence of the modern world emerge from that of the pre-modern, or medieval, period * Some criticize Burckhardt for overlooking the continuity between the Middle Ages and the Renaissance * Scholars agree
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* Despotism in Florence * Cosimo’s grandson, Lorenzo the Magnificent, ruled Florence in a totalitarian fashion during the last quarter century of the fifteenth century * Lorenzo’s brother had been assassinated by a rival family, the Pazzi, who had long plotted with the pope against the Medicis which made Lorenzo a cautious ruler * Despotism throughout Renaissance Italy * Oligarchies, or a small group of wealthy elites, hired strongmen, or despots, known as podesta to maintain law and order * Podesta held executive, military, and judicial authority, and had the task of maintaining the normal flow of business activity in the city state by whatever means necessary * Condottieri—military brokers who sent mercenary armies who were hired by the despots of the different city-states; since the despots could not rely on the loyalty of their divided populaces to serve as soldiers, they relied on mercenaries who they contracted through condottieri * Some despots, like the Visconti and Sforza families in Milan, came to rule their respective city-states free from interference from oligarchies * Political turbulence and warfare of the Renaissance period gave rise to the art of diplomacy and many despots established resident embassies and appointed ambassadors to other powerful city-states and nations * Humanism * Scholars debate over the meaning of
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