Apartheid in South Africa Essay

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Origins of Apartheid
In the seventeenth century, South Africa was colonized by Dutch and British imperialists. In response to British domination, Dutch settlers made two colonies: The Republic of the Orange Free State and Transvaal. Dutch descendants became known as “Afrikaners” or “Boers.” In the early 1900s, Boers discovered diamonds on their land. This led to a Britain invasion and sparked the Second Boer War, which lasted three years. This was the first modern war to see concentration camps; they were used successfully to break the will of Afrikaner guerilla forces by detaining their families. British forces won the war, converting the two Boer states into colonies who were promised limited self-governance. Post-Boer War, the
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This created “white only” areas. If a nonwhite wanted to enter one of these locations, one would have to carry their “pass book” which only gave them limited access. In 1951, the Bantu Authorities Act was implemented which would later be used to further suppress ethnic groups. It created “homelands” or states for each ethnic group. This had the effect of diverting the majority’s political rights (such as voting, political participation, etc.) away from the National Party and toward their homeland. In 1970, the Bantu Homelands Citizens Act augmented the Bantu Authorities Act. Empowered with this legislation, from 1976 to 1981, more than nine million South African citizens lost their nationality, becoming citizens of their respective Bantustan. They became aliens in their own country for nearly thirty years.

History of the African National Congress
The African National Congress (ANC) was founded in 1912 as a means to protect the rights of black persons. Through this party, a Programme of Action (1949) was born where protests and strikes were organized. This Programme evolved in 1952 with the launch of the Defiance Campaign. At this point, the ANCs goal was “. . . the liberation of the black majority and to equality before the law for all South Africans” (Walshe, 541). Some of the methods implemented may have been inspired by Gandhi’s actions as the ANC used similar methods as him (e.g., peaceful protest), and they began
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