The results show that there were little phonemic paraphasias in the therapy treatment compared to the baseline phase. A similar decrease was evident in the client’s dysfluent hesitations, and rates of all other errors such as formal paraphasias and semantic paraphasias were lower during the therapy session (Fisher, Wilshire, & Ponsford, 2009). Word discrimination therapy demonstrated that gains were significantly faster for the words that were trained within phonologically related triplets compared to those trained in unrelated triplet sets. Following the therapy session, the client was reassessed during the maintenance testing after three months of post-therapy. The outcome indicated that the therapy gains were well maintained over time for both related and unrelated sets. The examination of error types showed that phonemic paraphasias, dysfluent hesitations, formal paraphasias, and semantic paraphasias remained well below when observed during baseline testing in both related and unrelated items during the treatment phases (Fisher, Wilshire, & Ponsford,
Individuals with bilingual aphasia regaining language abilities post-brain injury have been observed to exhibit several different patterns of recovery. Bilingual persons with aphasia (PWA) often demonstrate impairments in both their languages, which may or may not be consistent with their pre-stroke language dominance (Fabbro, 1999, 2000, 2001; Paradis, 1995, 1998, 2001). Paradis (2001) reviewed published reports of bilingual PWA and found that a majority of them (61%) demonstrated equal recovery of language abilities in both languages, analogous to their proficiency prior to brain injury (parallel recovery). In the other participants, language recovery post-stroke was marked by better recovery in one language compared to the other (differential recovery; 18%), inappropriate mixing of the two languages (blended recovery; 9%), recovery of one language only (selective recovery; 7%) or recovery of one language after another (successive recovery; 5%). Fabbro (2001) evaluated the recovery profiles of 20 right-handed, high-proficiency bilingual PWA and also found a predominance of parallel recovery (65%) followed by differential recovery (35%). But despite the higher prevalence of parallel recovery, relatively
Language is an ability that many of us take for granted in everyday life. For those with aphasia, it is a daily struggle to overcome and effective communication is a goal to strive for. Aphasia patients are able to think, perhaps as well as the average person, but they simply cannot convey their ideas or thoughts easily. The Boston Diagnostic Aphasia Examination is an excellent examination for the diagnosis of the presence and type of aphasia, and for the location of brain damage. The Minnesota Test for Differential Diagnosis of Aphasia has been shown to be the most comprehensive assessment of the overall patient’s strengths and weaknesses in regard to language; it also allows for physicians to predict recovery accurately. Though it is no longer as popular or applicable as newer diagnostic tests, such as the BDAE, it is still an accurate assessment for aphasia. I think this is the paradox in neurological assessment: as technological advances improve, older assessments are becoming invalidated- though they are not inaccurate assessments. New advances and knowledge are being acquired in medicine every day, therefore there is always room for improvement (Holland, 2008). One of the biggest cons to the two batteries I mentioned in this paper is the fact that they are both time consuming- for both the patient and the
Aphasia is a communication disorder that affects many adults and families. Aphasia occurs as a result of damage to the language-specific areas of the brain (ASHA, 2014). Individuals with aphasia may experience difficulties with oral language, receptive language, memory, attention writing, and reading. There are a myriad of approaches designed for the treatment of aphasia. Two treatment approaches, Promoting Aphasics Communicative Effectiveness (P.A.C.E.) and Constraint Induced Language Therapy (C.I.L.T.), and their efficacy in regard to available evidence will be discussed below.
The effects of two treatments for word retrieval impairments in aphasic individuals. With the use of errorless naming treatment (ENT) and gestural facilitation of naming (GES). The effects of the two treatments that were used for a daily picture naming/gesture production probe measure and in standardized aphasia tests and communication rating scales were administered across phases of treatment. (p.235)
A contributing factor to this is how difficult it is for people with aphasia to produce sentences that flow smoothly and to connect their sentences. Computer software is helpful in speech therapy because it allows the patients to be able to record themselves speaking, replay it so they can hear exactly what they sound like, and be able to string together partial sentences. This computer program helps the patient produce sentences as they are being formulated. The goal of this program is to “investigate the utility of a two-step treatment that supplements improvements achieved from the use of the software with explicit structural treatment.” (Aphasiology 2009). The results of this study show that this specific approach improves the speech of patients suffering from aphasia, even chronic and non-fluent
These facts give momentum to the importance of the roles and responsibilities for Speech Language Pathologists when counseling patients, and the caregivers of people who have Alzheimer’s. Alzheimer’s disease directly attacks areas of the brain that effect cognitive abilities and memory, these skills are essential for an individuals comprehension and the production of language – this acquired language disorder is called Aphasia and it is within the speech language pathologists scope of practice to provide counseling to those that are diagnosed, and their caregivers.
The most common treatment for aphasia is treatment with a speech-language therapist. The therapist works to identify the exact issues the patient is having and to develop a plan on how to improve and manage those issues. The therapist can help the patient use his or her remaining abilities to the fullest, to restore language abilities where possible, to work around remaining language problems, and to learn other ways to get the message
The subjects were recruited from various aphasia support groups and clinics in Alabama and Illinois. Subjects had chronic aphasia from a single ischemic stroke in the left middle cerebral artery. They spoke English and their language abilities fell in the impaired range when administered the Token Test. Subjects were excluded if they had a history of degenerative diseases, a metabolic disorder, life-threatening illnesses, a history of severe mental illness, multiple strokes, or were pregnant. Out of the 24 eligible, 14 were randomized to the treatment group and 10 to the control group. All participants were given an explanation and goals of the CIAT program before treatment
The book Finding My Voice with Aphasia: Walking through Aphasia by Carol M. Maloney, started as a flashback to the author’s years in high school. At first, I thought that the author wanted to highlight her youth years, and remind the reader of her past. As I continued reading, I realized that her life experiences prior to her stroke were vital to her recovery.
SPLP 634 - Aphasia. Aphasia is a major course in the curriculum with emphasis on acquired communication disorders, including the etiologies, characteristics, anatomical/physiological, acoustic, psychological, developmental, and linguistic and cultural correlates. Aphasia is a graduate-level seminar-based course directed toward the study of acquired neurogenic language and cognitive disorders due to lesions of the central and peripheral nervous systems. Four major neurogenic disorders are addressed including: the aphasias, right hemisphere syndrome, traumatic brain injury (TBI), and dementia. An introduction to the language found in neurogenic psychopathology are also discussed. Etiological factors that affect varied cultural groups (e.g.,
Aphasia is a language disorder that can be the result of a brain injury. An individual that is suffering from aphasia may experience difficulty speaking, writing, reading, or comprehending. There are three different types of Aphasia that differ in various ways. First, Wernicke’s Aphasia is the inability to grasp the meaning of words and sentences that have been produced by another individual. This type of aphasia is also known as “fluent aphasia” or “receptive aphasia”. Wernicke patients’ speech may come across like a jumble of words or jargon, but it is very well articulated and they have no issue producing their own connected speech. If the patient is consecutively making errors, it is common for them to be unaware of their difficulties, and not realize that their sentences don’t make sense. The severity of the disorder varies depending on the patient, and the disorder results form damage in the left posterior temporal region of the brain, which is also known as Wernicke’s area.
Human beings occasionally suffer bad damage to particular parts of their brains. Unfortunately, these injuries may lead to major failure of speech production, understanding language and comprehension which most of the patients suffer it permanently. This impairment is called Aphasia. Gayle (2012) states that people with aphasia fail to understand sentence comprehension although it is a simple sentence. She also mentioned that aphasia patients also have difficulty in reading and understanding speeches. According to Fromkin, Rodman and Hyams (2011), aphasia is a scientific term used to explained language disorder due to brain injuries caused by diseases or trauma. In other words, aphasia involves partial or total loss of the ability to
The purpose of this paper is to pursue one important and fundamental aim: language and the brain are purely inseparable since it allows us to perform essential tasks such as generating, comprehending and expressing speech. With damage to the brain, individuals can no longer perform such tasks which can ultimately lead to many types of language disorders. The focus of this paper is Broca’s aphasia, a language disorder characterized by the inability to produce written and spoken speech. Damage to the brain can cause many types of speech impairments as well as comprehension deficits.
Importantly, Hashimoto & Frome (2011) considered this trend and proposed this effect was more likely to be due to improved access to the semantic system rather than just generalization to the treatment process since two of the three features (group, properties) incorporated cues that were wholly unique to those categories. However, the study lacked a control set of untrained words or categories which would have helped confirm this. Still, another potentially important and related insight is that the categories which showed the largest drop at the maintenance probe also achieved criteria fastest and were therefore treated for the least time, whereas the initial category which was treated for the most sessions, retained the highest level. This suggests that perhaps a minimum set of sessions may be required to overcome a “threshold” to sustain results rather than just achieving a criterion (Hashimoto & Frome, 2011).