Sickle cell disease is a disease that is most prevalent in people of African descent along with people of Mediterranean and Middle Eastern origin. This disease is known to affect about 70, 000 Americans and about 2 million people carry the trait (meaning that, they carry a single gene mutation).
Sickle Cell Anemia is a hereditary disease that changes the smallest and most important components of the body. A gene causes the bone marrow in the body to make sickled shapes, when this happens; it causes the red blood cell to die faster. This is what causes Hemolytic Anemia. Older children and adults with sickle cell disease may experience a few complications, or have a pattern of ongoing problems that shorten their lives. The most common and serious complications of sickle cell disease are anemia, pain, fatigue, and organ failure. Today there are many alternatives and opportunities that a sickle cell patient may consider. One outlined in this paper is the Hydroxyurea method.
Aplastic Anemia is a potentially life threatening syndrome in which the affected person experiences pancytopenia which means there is a reduced production of red blood cells [RBCs], white blood cells [WBCs] as well as platelets. The affected person also will have hypoplastic bone marrow which means that fat replacement in the bone marrow space which is normally filled with hematopoietic precursor cells (Cabrera & Schiebel, 2015). The cells produced by the bone marrow are crucial for supplying oxygen and nourishment to tissues and organs, fighting off infection and clotting of
Sickle-cell Anemia is a genetic disorder that causes sever pain in the lower back, legs, arms, abdomen, and chest. Red blood cells carry oxygen to the body. The body uses oxygen to make energy. Inside the red blood cell is a protein called hemoglobin, which hooks on to the oxygen. People with sickle-cell anemia have abnormal hemoglobin known as hemoglobin S. Hemoglobin S changes the blood cells into the shape of a sickle. These abnormal sickle cells stick to the blood vessel walls causing blockages. These blockages do not allow blood to flow. This is what causes the pain. People get sickle cell disease when a parent has a mutated hemoglobin gene. Their child has a chance of inheriting the sickle-cell trait or getting sickle-cell Anemia.
Exposure to toxic chemicals used in pesticides, may cause aplastic anemia (Musser, 2006). Drugs used to treat rheumatoid arthritis and some antibiotics, can cause aplastic anemia. A viral infection that affects bone marrow may develop aplastic anemia in some people. Viruses linked to the development of aplastic anemia include hepatitis, Epstein-Barr, cytomegalovirus, and HIV (Musser, 2006). Blood transfusion treatment is used to control bleeding and relieve symptoms. Blood transfusions are not a cure but it relieves signs and symptoms by providing blood cells that the bone marrow is not producing. Over time, your body may develop antibodies to transfused blood cells, making them less effective at relieving symptoms. The use of immunosuppressant medication makes this complication less likely (Musser,
Feedback: Prolonged survival has been reported following the successful transplantation of the thymus gland or spontaneous remission of immunodeficiency. A heart, liver, or lung transplant will not resolve the hypocalcemia.
Severe DBA can be treated by blood transfusions from a compatible host. Blood transfusions help by replacing the defective blood with healthy blood. However, a constant supply is needed as the person will still continue to produce the mutated cells. Constant transfusions can lead to organ damage due to an excess of iron. To combat this, one can undergo a bone marrow transfusion. With a bone marrow transfusion from a healthy donor, the affected person will begin to produce healthy blood cells with the new marrow. If successful, the bone marrow transplant will not fix any of the birth defects a person with DBA is likely to have, but it will stop the progression of the disease and allow the person to live out their lives. In spite of positive results however, bone marrow transfusions can be very dangerous. For some, the possible side effects of a bone marrow transplant outweigh the possible positive effects. Another good way to treat DBA non-invasively is by using corticosteroids to treat the anemia in DBA. In a large study conducted, more than 80% showed signs of improvement because of the steroids. However, over time the effectiveness for some decreased while for others remained largely the same. There were also several adverse side effects that were associated with this treatment.
Approximately 100,000 people suffer from Sickle Cell Anemia everyday and about 2 million people have the Sickle Cell trait in the United States alone. Sickle cell disease is the most common inherited blood disorder in the United States, affecting 70,000 to 80,000 Americans (Pruthi 2018). The disease is estimated to occur in 1 in 500 African Americans and 1 in 1,000 to 1,400 Hispanic Americans (Pruthi 2018). Sickle cell anemia is an inherited form of anemia, a condition in which there aren't enough healthy red blood cells to carry adequate oxygen throughout your body normally, your red blood cells are flexible and round, moving easily through your blood vessels. In sickle cell anemia, the red blood cells become
Sickle cell anemia is a severe condition in which there aren’t enough healthy, round red blood cells to carry adequate oxygen throughout your body. It is a form of anemia in which a mutated form of hemoglobin--a red protein responsible for transporting oxygen in the blood of vertebrates--distorts the red blood cells into a crescent shape. This causes low oxygen levels. Normal red blood cells are flexible and round allowing for easy movement throughout your blood vessels. In sickle cell anemia, the red blood cells are rigid and sticky and are shaped like a crescent moon--or a sickle. The effect is the red blood cells get caught in small vessels and block blood from reaching different parts of the body. This can cause pain and tissue damage.
Another option is Bone Marrow Transplantation. In many cases of acute leukemia and cml, doctors give high doses of chemotherapy and radiation, when indicated to destroy all of the patient’s bone marrow, since it is not functioning correctly. Then they give the patient healthy bone marrow from the donor, whose tissue it the same or almost the same as theirs; ideally an identical twin or a sibling. They also might give bone marrow that was removed from the patient earlier and especially treated to remove any leukemia cells. Patients who have a bone marrow transplant bone marrow begins to produce enough
For children suffering from autoimmune hemolytic anemia, therapy and treatment will be based upon the child’s age, the general health of the child, and the child’s medical record. Treatment will also depend on the extent of the anemia, the cause of the anemia, and the child's tolerance for certain medications, and potential course of the anemia. The treatment for children with autoimmune hemolytic anemia may consist of blood transfusions, corticosteroid medications, and possible surgical removal of the spleen, for children who do not respond to other treatments.
The sickle cell disease is an inherited blood disorder that affects red blood cells. People with sickle cell have red blood cells that have mostly hemoglobin's, Sometimes these red blood cells become sickle-shaped or crescent shaped and have trouble going through small blood vessels. When sickle-shaped cells block small blood vessels, less blood can get to
Anemia is a condition in which the concentration of red blood cells or hemoglobin in the blood is below normal. Hemoglobin is a substance in red blood cells that carries oxygen to the tissues of the body. Anemia results in not enough oxygen reaching these tissues.
Iron Deficiency Anemia affects millions of individuals across the world. This disease strikes many more women than men and has harmful effects on all who suffer from this deficiency that causes oxygen-carrying capacity to decrease. The causes can vary amongst different groups, but the aggravating symptoms remain constant. Much of the research on Iron Deficiency Anemia concentrates on not only the treatment of this disease, but also the prevention of it. To attain a better understanding of how to treat this problem, one must clearly know what Iron Deficiency Anemia means, what causes this disease, the effects of it, and finally how to cure it.