APOE4 gene, we are at risk. If we have two APOE4 genes, the risk is even higher.
CYP51A1 is an important cytochrome P450 enzyme, also called as Lanosterol 14 α-demethylase. It is known to play an important role in conversion of lanosterol to 4,4-dimethylcholesta-8(9),14,24-trien-3β-ol The cytochrome P450 enzymes belongs to some conserved group of proteins. Such proteins play an important role in the metabolism of organic substances
What is Cholesterol? Wanda Pitt Ocean County College What is Cholesterol? “Cholesterol is a waxy, fa-like substance that is found in all cells of the body” (http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health). In the body, the liver makes the amount of cholesterol that the body needs to help make hormones and to help with the digestion of the food that is eaten. Cholesterol is also found in some foods that are eaten, especially in meat, chicken and mild products that still have the milk fat in them. The cholesterol that is found in the body, what is eaten and what is made by the liver, is carried in the blood stream by lipoproteins. Lipoproteins are made from both protein and fat, the cholesterol attaches itself to the lipoprotein so that is can reach
NP- C1 develops as a result of mutations in the NPC1 gene, located on chromosome 18 at position 11.2. The NPC1 gene is involved in the production of proteins that are located within the membrane of compartments within the cell. As a result of the mutation, affected individuals are not able to breakdown cholesterol and other lipids, leading to their accumulation in cells, causing a buildup of fat (lipids) in
This gene instructs the body to make lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase enzyme (LCAT enzyme) which has a function of removing cholesterol from body and tissues and carrying them to the liver by the help of lipoprotein molecules. The cholesterol molecules will then be redistributed to other body tissues or removed from body by the liver. The activity of LCAT enzymes which adds cholesterol molecules to high-density lipoprotein (HDL) is called Alpha-LCAT activity. When LCAT enzymes add cholesterol molecules to very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) and low-density lipoprotein, the activity is called Beta-LCAT activity. The mutation in gene LCAT leads to the reducing of Alpha-LCAT activity in the LCAT enzyme. This results in body lacking cholesterol and cornea opacities cholesterol. There is so far no known reason why this mutation only causes cholesterol opacities in cornea (Fish-eye
Molecular Sciences reveal the irreversible non-enzymatic degradation of lycopene with various oxidative metabolites. The blood plasma levels get affected by the accumulation of 3-keto-apo-B and 1515-apo lycopenoids among cleavage products.(64) Certain dietary factors consistently influence heart related diseases by the concentration of plasma levels with no specific components. The Hyper-reactivity of ROS and Nitric Oxide generation endogenously affect metabolic activities throughout the critical stages of DNA, lipids and proteins. The blood circulation containing Chylomicrons and other Apo-beta lipoproteins need a constant Sophisticate Replenishment System for internal absorption and enzymatic pathways on human cells and tissues.
Abstract Context: Lipodystrophy syndromes are characterized by generalized or partial absence of adipose tissue, usually associated with insulin resistance-related conditions. Objective: We conducted a systematic review to synthesize existing data about clinical and metabolic features of lipodystrophy. Data Source: Sources included Medline, Embase, Cochrane Library, Scopus and Non-Indexed Citations from inception
Risk factors for heart disease cause problems because inevitably, they lead to atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis is the deposition of plaques of fatty material on the inner walls of the arteries ("What Is Cardiovascular Disease?” 2014). It develops for years without causing symptoms and it can happen in any part of the body. Around the heart, it is known as coronary artery disease because coronary arteries feed the heart muscle itself. Coronary heart disease symptoms include angina (dull/heavy sharp chest pain or discomfort), or pain in neck, jaw, throat, upper abdomen or back. All of these symptoms and risks of cardiovascular disease may be the result of high cholesterol. Cholesterol is the macromolecule (fat/lipid) in our blood. Our bodies create all the cholesterol our cells need, but most of the time we get cholesterol from the foods that we eat as well.
The majority of the diagnosed AD cases (>95%) fall under the late-onset form of AD (LOAD), with the age of onset >65 years. In contrast to the genetics of EO-FAD caused by autosomal dominant pathogenic variants showing a Mendelian inheritance mode, LOAD is attributed to genetically complex and heterogeneous variants
C4330 Description: EC50: 7 and 4 μM for LXRα and LXRβ, respectively 24(R)-hydroxy Cholesterol is a LXRα and LXRβ nuclear receptors activator. The liver X receptors (LXRs) are identified as orphan members of the nuclear receptor superfamily. Like other receptors in the family, LXRs heterodimerize with RXR and bind to specific response elements. LXRα and β are nuclear receptors regulating the metabolism of several important lipids, such as cholesterol and bile acids.
Familial Hypercholesterolemia Introduction Every parent wants their children to be health and it is not easy. That is the reason why this article written to introduce one of the genetic diseases, familial hypercholesterolemia. Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH), also known as familial β hyperlipoproteinemia. The clinical features of hypercholesterolemia, characteristic xanthomas, family history of
ATP binding cassette (ABC) proteins are transporter proteins located throughout the cells’ membranes, endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria. They are responsible for the translocation of specific molecules across membranes using energy from ATP. In addition, they are responsible for certain processes like DNA repair and translation of RNA. Also, ABC proteins transport many substrates across intra- and extracellular membranes such as metabolic products, drugs, lipids, and sterols. Specifically, the ABC1 protein has been found to increase the expression of cholesterol by increasing the addition of high density lipoproteins. The mutation of these proteins can lead to serious defects. (Source 1) (Source 2)
Currently, there is a study testing if test participants have an increased risk of developing AD and CVD through the ApoE4 allele. A method known as whole genome sequencing has been able to pinpoint the DNA sequence of a complete genome sequence in one go. There is another method called whole exome sequencing that specifically looks for parts of the genome that contribute to the sequencing of specific proteins, like Apolipoproteins for example. Using these two methods, researches can find new genes that contribute to or protect us from disease, especially CVD and AD. As of right now though, researches have only been able to find the loci (location) of the ApoE gene on the 19th chromosome. Because of these impressive methods and
Introduction Lipoprotein A was first discovered in humans by Kare Berg in 1963 whilst a study of variation in LDL antigenicity. The Human gene encoding lipoprotein(a) was cloned in the year 1987(1).
Omega-3 fatty acids are essential fatty acids which possess the most potent immunomodulatory activities. It is also known as long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), which include eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (1). They are united in different parts of the body containing cell membranes and play a crucial role in anti-inflammatory processes and in the viscosity of cell membranes (2-3). EPA and DHA are also the precursors of several metabolites that are strong lipid mediators. Many scientists believe that omega-3 fatty acids are beneficial in the prevention or treatment of several diseases are characterized by an increased level of interleukin 1 (IL-1) such as Coronary heart diseases, cancer and AAA (4).