Applied Question 2 Essay

701 Words Mar 28th, 2015 3 Pages
Lillian Hikmah
Professor Kevin Cummines
Intro to Music
21 November 2013
Applied Questions 2:
1. Discuss the use of music in Catholic and Protestant worship practice, from the development of polyphony, through the music of J.S. Bach. In so doing, discuss the shift in responsibility for musical development from the Catholic Church to the Lutheran Church.
During the middle Ages, the Catholic Church was the sole contributor to musical development. The music of the early church was monophonic, and had nonmetric melodies set in one of the church modes, or scales. The rise or development of polyphony came about during the Renaissance period; the Council of Trent wanted polyphonic church music to be created and Palestrina composed the Pope
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Beethoven contributed one of the most significant musical developments through his fifth and ninth symphonies. He used a musical motive as the basic of his entire piece. (Beethoven described the motive as “Fate knocks at the door”.) It was the first time in history that anyone had done such a thing for a multi-movement piece. Beethoven’s contribution has become a norm in the music world, even to this day.
4. As aristocratic courts and court orchestras disappeared in the first decades of the 19th century, they were replaced by city-sponsored ensembles, such as the Vienna Philharmonic. How did this affect the employability of professional musicians? Include why the aristocratic court orchestras dissolved, the employability of performers with that collapse, and the subsequent rise of the city-sponsored orchestras.
The French Revolution signaled the transfer of power from a hereditary landholding aristocracy to the growing middle class. This transfer caused aristocratic courts and court orchestras to disappeared as the middle class got stronger and stronger; as a result many professional musicians had to seek work else to provide for themselves and their family. Prior to the shift, musicians were skilled workers who were paid to practice and preform music. Once the aristocratic court orchestras disappeared, many city such as Vienna started city ensembles so that musicians would still be able to be “working musicians”;

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