Aqa Gcse Chemistry Unit 1

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AQA GCSE Chemistry Unit 1 C 1: Fundamental ideas: C 1.1. Atoms, elements and compounds: * All substances are made up of atoms. * Elements contain only one atom. * Compounds contain more than one atom. * An atom has a tiny nucleus in its centre, surrounded by electrons. C 1.2. Atomic structure: * Atoms are made up of protons, neutrons and electrons. * Protons and electrons have equal and opposite electrical charges. Protons are positively charged, and electrons are negatively charged. * Neutrons have no electrical charge. They are neutral. * Atomic number = number of protons (number of electrons.) * Mass number = number of protons and neutrons. * Atoms are arranged in the periodic table in order…show more content…
For example, copper is used in wiring because of its high electrical conductivity. * Copper, gold and aluminum are all alloyed with other metals to make them harder. C 3.6. Metallic issues: * There are social and environmental issues associated with exploiting ores. * Plants can remove metals from low grade ores. The metal can be recovered by processing the ash from burning the plants. * Recycling metals saves energy and our limited metal ores (and fossil fuels). The pollution from extracting metals is also reduced. * There are drawbacks as well as benefits from the use of metals in structures. C 4: Crude oil and fuels: C 4.1. Fuels from crude oil: * Crude oil is a mixture of many different compounds. * Many of the compounds in crude oil are hydrocarbons – they contain only hydrogen and carbon. * Alkenes are saturated hydrocarbons. They contain as many hydrogen atoms as possible in their molecules. C 4.2. Fractional distillation: * We separate crude oil into fraction using fractional distillation. * The properties of each fraction depend on the size of their hydrocarbon molecules. * Lighter fraction make better fuels as they ignite more easily and burn well, with cleaner (less smoky) flame. C 4.3. Burning fuels: * When we burn hydrocarbon fuels in the air the carbon and hydrogen in the fuel are completely oxidized. They produce carbon dioxide and water. * Sulfur impurities in

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