In A Mexican Self-Portrait, written by many authors, this article focused on the different lifestyles of the poor and rich woman in Mexico. The representations of women in Mexico for both high and lower classes in Latin America were very different. For lower class they were considered “tortilleras’’, however, one of the most well known was referred to as “La China”. La China was one of the most notable types portrayed in the “Mexican Self Portrait”. She was considered to be an unnamed independent woman of the popular class.
This exhibition showcases art from the fifteenth century and early sixteenth century with Lord of Texcoco and the Texas Fragment. These two pieces represent post-Conquest art, and how indigenous figures were represented with European influence. In the seventeenth century, Antonio Rodriguez painted The Portrait of Moctezuma as well. His representation of Moctezuma showcases traditional clothing with European influence of modeling figures. This exhibition also features Miguel Cabrera, who was trained in European techniques and styles in Mexico during the eighteenth century under the patronage of Archbishop of Mexico, Manuel Joseph Rubio y Salinas. The exhibition features various artists from the nineteenth century as well, such as Felix Parra, Leandro Izaguirre, and Juan Cordero from the Royal Academy of San Carlos in Mexico City. Artists in the academy were trained in European styles of Neo-Classical forms to create their historical subjects. The purpose of the academy was to provide an outlet for legitimacy through the visual arts, and to reflect a nation's history. Often times, these paintings were political in nature, and reflected the patrons' wishes. This exhibition will link the representations of indigenous figures that appeared in Latin America through art in Mexico from the fifteenth to the nineteenth century and showcase how art
As a conquistador under the command of Hernán Cortes, Bernal Diaz witnessed some of Latin America’s most interesting and least chronicled history. He was fortunate enough to be one of a select few Europeans to experience the Aztec empire at its height and to visit Tenochtitlan prior to its downfall. In an era where personal accounts of the historical occurrences are almost nonexistent, Bernal Diaz’s The True History of the Conquest of New Spain provides virtually the only window into this period. As a result, his text has become the most significant historical document concerning the Spanish conquest of Mexico. Perhaps the most poignant excerpt from The True History of the Conquest of New Spain is Diaz’s detailed description of his first
One of the primary aspects of colonial Spanish life that is depicted in many Casta paintings, and represents signifiant racial tensions at the time, is the depiction of mixed race, or mixed nationality people, who are present, or the subjects of many Casta paintings. Although the Casta system, and the Casta paintings that depict this system encompass a wide and deeply complex racial hierarchy, there are some significant racial distinctions that are prominent in many Casta paintings. Some of the main racial and national distinctions seen in many Casta paintings are, Criollos (Mainly Spanish, or other Europeans who were born in America), Mestizos (A person with one Native American parents and one European parent), Mulatos (A person with one African parent and one European parent), and Negros (African). Although these terms would often be considered to be highly offensive in modern day America, they are culturally relevant, as they were commonly used at the time of the Casta system. This essay will explore the depictions of these four groups of people in Casta paintings, and how these paintings help to illuminate the racial tensions, hierarchies, and cultural changes occurring in Hispanic America during the 17th century.
Through the racial caste system of the Spanish Colonial Era, it is known that the people of mixed race and dark skin of the time were viewed as inferior by the Spaniards. This inferiority complex was mainly due to one group of people oppressing another. The irony behind this instance is that it was the minority oppressing the majority. Another factor behind the success of the caste system was internalized oppression, or, in other words, one group of people oppressing themselves. Through accepting this perspective of thinking and contributing to the society that surrounded them, these mixed-race people ended up adding fuel to the fire of their oppression. According to Martha Menchaca, author of Recovering History, Reconstructing Race, self-oppression came because of the vacancy of leadership positions in New Spain. At the core, this vacancy gave those who were not “pure” Spaniards the opportunity to achieve a greater sense of social acceptance. In her book, Menchaca states that while these people of color did, to an extent, succeed in improving their quality of life, the tyrannical narrative was never really changed. Furthermore, it was this search for a better life that created the foundation for what is now Mexico today.
Success! That’s what we feel when artist with roots from Mexico, Elizabeth Blancas, self-identified as a Xicana, expresses her mind on a relevant issue throughout an outstanding display of empowering and freedom in the piece “Women & Two Spirits Are The Backbone Of Every Tribe”, in the corner of Saint Marguerite with Saint-Antoine West streets. In her painting, the artist presents a sexual issue and the cultural role it has in the indigenous tribes. Although the artist expertise relies on serigraphy, she blooms in the mural world hand-brushing distinguished figures by giving voice to protesters against a US company pipeline construction site, near the Standing Dakota Indian Reservation, and in special Caro Gonzales and Lauren Howland.
Colonial Latin American society in the Seventeenth Century was undergoing a tremendous amount of changes. Society was transforming from a conquering phase into a colonizing phase. New institutions were forming and new people and ideas flooded into the new lands freshly claimed for the Spanish Empire. Two remarkable women, radically different from each other, who lived during this period of change are a lenses through which many of the new institutions and changes can be viewed. Sor Juana and Catalina de Erauso are exceptional women who in no way represent the norm but through their extraordinary tales and by discovering what makes them so extraordinary we can deduce what was the norm and how society functioned during this era of Colonial
The historic documentation of the “Liens de Tlaxcala” painted from a Native American perspective illustrates Spanish documental techniques in Mexican and Central America before during the conquest. Documentation techniques feature illustrations of the conquers Castilians and Tlaxcala’s invading the Western Hemispheres and killing the native Acatepec groups. The illustrations show a much deeper meaning of how the society of the natives was structured based on different gender roles, status, and class hierarchy. An example of social class is how the groups differed in attire, weaponry, and tactics of battle. For instance, image 79 illustrates how the Castilians and Tlaxcala’s were dressed in proper war clothing. The clothing constituted of headbands,
Mexican people living in Texas, which until 1830 was part of Mexico, had a peaceful life. As any other city, the society was divided into rich and poor classes. Spanish descendants were the rich and mixed-blood people were the poor. Even with these marked social distinctions, the Mexicans had no major problem with each other. BY 1920, the Mexican government in its effort to increase the economy, invited Americans to move to the vast expanse of land. Taking advantage of the rich soil in Texas, in a while, there was more Anglos than Tejanos living in this part of Mexico. Although the Mexicans copied the lifestyle of the White Americans, “No dramatic historical modifications disturbed the cultural structure of the Mexican-Tejano community” (p.168).
Representation” by Michael Schreffler argues that “ . . . early modern rhetoric and iconography . . . constructed a distorted view of painting in Aztec Mexico and entangled it in the conventions of colonial historiography” (407). This essay is effective because of its thorough examination of the accounts that explain a painting made by the Aztec’s at San Juan de Ulúa on Easter Sunday of 1519.
Brown: The Last Discovery of America completes Richard Rodriguez 's three-volume work in which he explains and explores the ethnic and racial future of America. In this particular book, the author defines the color brown not as the representation of the Hispanic race but as the color of the future. Black, white, yellow, the author explains, are incorrect racial categories for it is not how nature works. Nature yearns for combination of all different colors, and brown is the final result. In the chapter "Hispanics," as seen through imagery, personification, and humor, Richard Rodriguez upsets the reader to show that racial categorization is unfit and that racial barriers are meant to be broken.
Where as Mexico and Mexicans are described in another light with references to a holocaust and “violent and traumatic.” Spaniards were “brutal and callous,” and Spanish law a “chaotic jumble” (7, 10, 13).
Hispanic art, food, and entertainment all have a common theme; they are all fun, light-hearted, yet fulfilling and rich in cultural heritage. On one side, Mexican culture in particular loves to make fun of itself. There are many depictions in song and art of lazy Mexicans in large sombreros with thick mustaches eating burritos. On the other hand artists like Diego Rivera paint large murals depicting rich historical events like the revolution, in bold colors on controversial topics (This Old, n.d.).
On Painting by Leon Alberti is, in essence, a book of guidelines for novice painters. Alberti explains that since paintings are meant to represent things that are seen, they need also be approached this way. In his theory, he breaks up the way of painting into three important components circumscription, composition, and the reception of light. Within these three are guidelines for the portrayal of subjects, spaces and emotion.
Beautiful, flowing imagery through art renderings will show Don Isaac Abarbanel and Spain in her ‘golden years’ juxtaposed with stark images of the horrors of 15th century Spain with King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella, Catholic Priest Torquemada in the king’s court with condemned Jews in pointed hats, Jews fleeing