Aristotle, Joseph Schumpeter, Milton Friedman, And John Rawls

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The concept of equality is multi-faceted and widely debated among scholars. While there is no singular definition for equality, equality deals with the distribution of some “thing” in a specific domain. For this paper, equality will be narrowed down to the domains of economic and political. It is essential to note that distinct types of equality can become conditions for equality in a different domain. In this case, economic equality will be analyzed as a condition for political equality. How is it exactly that economic equality can undermine political equality? By answering this question, this paper will prove that economic equality is a necessary pre-condition for political equality. I will do this by analyzing the political writings of…show more content…
The free person has the ability to pursue their own telos economically, but the slave can only be a slave, subjugated to a master. As a result of this economic inequality, the political equality of the slave is undermined as they cannot be a citizen within the polis. In addition to Aristotle, economist Joseph Schumpeter is also of importance because of his theories on democracy. In his book Capitalism, Socialism, and Democracy, Schumpeter explicated his new theory of democracy and defines it as the “rule of the politician.” With this new theory, he makes it clear that he is deviating from the classical notion of 18th century democracy presented by Rousseau and Bentham. Schumpeter writes that this traditional model of democracy could be defined as “the democratic method is that institutional arrangement for arriving at political decisions which realizes the common good by making the people itself decide issues through the election of individuals who are to assemble in order to carry out its will” (Schumpeter 250). His major critique on such democracy entails the assumption of a common good because he believes that people cannot achieve a conclusion of what the general will is. Thus, Schumpeter posits his own theory of democracy, which can be defined as follows: “that institutional arrangement for arriving at political decisions in which individuals acquire the power to decide by means of a competitive struggle for the people’s vote” (Schumpeter 269). This

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