Art and Math: Golden Ratio and the De Divina Proportione

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Mathematics has always been very prominent in art since the beginning of time. Mathematical tools such as the Golden Ratio and the De Divina Proportione have helped shape the art we know today. Famous artists and mathematicians such as Piero De Francesca, Polykleitos, and M. C. Escher are the founders of the amazing works of art we are familiar with. Even modern day mathematics has given art a new form, with Fractal Art. Without math, some of the art we have today would not exist. In the ancient times, the Golden Ratio was the most used mathematical tool. The Golden Ratio is a term used to describe aesthetically pleasing proportioning within a piece. It is an actual ratio 1: PHI. The Golden Ratio was a tool used for composition, not rule. It was often used by Leonardo Da Vinci in several of his paintings. All key dimensions of the room and table in Da Vinci’s “The Last Supper” were based on the Golden Ratio, known as the Divine Proportion in the Renaissance. In Michaelangelo’s painting of “The Creation of Adam” the finger of God touches the finger of Adam precisely on the golden ratio point of the width and height on the area that contains them both. Botticelli compared “The Birth of Venus” with several different golden ratio points, all coming to the woman’s naval and bottom tip of her right elbow. The well known French painter, Georges Pierre Seurat, was notorious for “attacking every canvas by the golden section.” In one of his paintings, the horizon falls exactly on

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