research is observational in nature and a type of correlational research, and is often contrasted with
There are a number of different qualitative research approaches available to researchers which can provide a framework for their study to be conducted under. Many modern methods like interpretive and postmodern have followed in the footsteps of more traditional methods such as phenomenology. Historically, phenomenology as a research method has existed and evolved over the last two centuries, with Edmund Husserl being considered as the father of the research method and modern philosophy (Østergaard, Dahlin & Hugo 2008). The phenomenological movement emerged into the academic domain as a descriptive philosophical view which challenged analytical and deductive philosophies (Sanders 1982).
Research methodology and methodological approaches that is, the structured process of conducting research and the overall concepts and theories which underpin research respectively (Bryman, 2008), occupy a central position in the research process as they are both shaped by and translate the researcher’s epistemological position. Epistemology then refers to a researcher’s philosophical stance about the nature, derivation and scope of knowledge (Gilbert, 2008). These positions are seldom ‘spelt out’ but rather understood in the matter of research methodology and approach (Sarantakos, 2005).
‘Employing a qualitative methodology, underpinned by a constructivist world view, has provided the means to generate rich, deep and contextualised understandings of the research issue, and an appreciation of the socially constructed and experienced realities of the participants.’ (Highfield 2012)
This study did not all unfold in the field. For continuation of the interviews they were asked questions through face to face or telephone calls depending on the participant’s convenience. This method still allowed the researcher to capitalize on any new or early understanding. It gives the researcher flexibility in asking questions to continue on the path that the participants take them in. The research does not show any evidence of reflexivity. The contact number was adequate to understand the phenomena.
Epistemological criticism argues that all approaches are unlikely to produce consistent evidence because of the inherent property. It will generate a new viewpoint. However, through abundant reading, triangulation will enlarge width and depth in qualitative research and provide an analysis with security- a overall perspective. Participants can improve the validity of research. Bloor (1978) argues that sociologists can establish a correspondence with participants, in which participants can identify, give assent and judgement to sociologists.
Qualitative research is concerned with meanings of experiences and interactions. Qualitative research is very common in the social sciences, although it is often used in market research as well (Alasuutari, 2010; Nieswiadomy, 2011). There has been quite a rise in qualitative research in the last 30 years. It first started to emerge in journals in the 1960’s, and an increase in the number of qualitative research can be seen in research journals in the 1980’s (Alasuutari, 2010). Instead of looking at the statistical numbers within research, the researcher in interested in getting within the research, and understanding the phenomenon (Leedy, 2011; LoBionod-Wood & Haber, 2013).
There are a lot of differences between the two perspectives; however something they both have in common is reflexivity, the researcher’s willingness to put themselves in the picture of knowledge production. In the phenomenological perspective this is noted unambiguously as a desirable part of the method and is unequivocal about the way in which the approach is appropriate
Nowadays, social researchers increasingly deemed that qualitative researchers should be ‘insiders’ because they found many
Going forward, I will incorporate this principle of reflexivity as I examine the theme I identified from my interaction with Tijuana. The topic used as a basis for my interview was the one concerning the ‘course waitlist’. One theme grasped from the analysis of my interview are the moments of pauses in-between my questions and Tijuana’s replies. According to Kawabata & Gastaldo (2015), silences in interviews are deemed as problematic in qualitative research and also represent the partial failure of interviewers. At first, I did not pay too much attention to these moments of silence because I just assumed that they were a natural occurrence whenever two people engage in conversation with one another; however, I soon discovered that there is more to the silences in qualitative research interviews. Poland & Pederson (1998) argue that silence is often overlooked in qualitative research, and can constitute a coherent subtext that solicits an interpretation of its own (294). A tactic one can use to analyse pauses in interviews involves appreciating the multiple meanings silence may have (Poland & Pederson, 1998). In my interview with Tijuana, there were many instances of short and long pauses and due to my
First, ethnographies emphasise the point of view of the actor. However, as Becker (1996: 57-8) argues, this a technical rather than an epistemological point. All researchers need to interpret actions and guess meanings. What separates quantitative questionnaires and ethnography is only that ethnographers demand more accuracy in interpretation. But as Becker (1996: 59) notes, ‘”don’t make up what you could find out” hardly requires being dignified as an epistemological or philosophical position’. Second, as Bryman (1984) discusses, it is sometimes argued based on epistemologies that one research method is better than another because it revealed something that another one did not when asking the same questions. Yet there is no logic here in knowing which result is correct, and even if there was, the question being the same, we can only conclude that the research method suited the question better. Third, it is also argued that the epistemologies differ because qualitative research is exploratory and quantitative verify these explorations. This, however, in fact suggests same epistemological assumptions, because then to actually know anything that qualitative research suggests, quantitative verification is needed.
There are two main subdivisions of research philosophies; ontological and epistemological research philosophies. Ontology involves using a nature perspective to establish how things work. On the other hand, epistemology involves assessing the interaction between the knowledge of the inquirer and the research (Saunders, Lewis, & Thornhill, 2009). The nature of reality can thus be determined by reviewing the four primary research philosophies that are based on epistemology and ontology.
My journal this week focuses on the three methods of research to include qualitative, quantitative and mixed, (Creswell, 2014). Qualitative research provides the life story through narration, so we are able to identify and understand the human and social situation, (Creswell, 2014). Quantitative research focuses on the statistics, to include analyzing experimental data or survey outcomes, (Creswell, 2014). This method establishes the numeric aspects of research. According to the author, Creswell, (2014), Quantitative was the predominant method of research conducted in the 19th and 20th century. The mixed method incorporates both the quantitative and qualitative approaches to research, (Creswell, 2014). This method provides the story along with the statistical data to formulate a more complete method of research. The framework for research established by the author, Creswell, (2014), consists of design, research methods, philosophical worldviews and research approaches. The worldviews noted in the author’s framework encompasses post positivist, constructivist, transformative and pragmatic, (Creswell, 2014). Each worldview has a different focus regarding philosophy of research methods. The post positivist follows a more traditional approach, with emphasis on quantitative research methods that are based on scientific backing, (Creswell, 2014). Constructivist tells the story; therefore, emphasis is placed on qualitative approach to research, (Creswell, 2014).
Maxwell (2005) also notes that qualitative research can be used to address various issues and is not restricted to one ontological stance. The method also involves developing a relationship with the people one is studying, an aspect that is important in defining the authenticity of the data and determining the course of action.
On the other hand, Neville (2005, p. 4) is of the view that, “research is not ‘neutral’, but reflects a range of the researcher’s personal interests, values, abilities, assumptions, aims and ambitions”.