Porcine Zona Pellucida, or PZP is a vaccine hand injected into mares to prevent pregnancy. The National Academy of Sciences states “The Porcine Zona Pellucida (PZP) vaccine, an immunocontraceptive, is the most extensively tested method in free-ranging horses and ma be the most promising option at present” (Using Science to Improve the BLM Wild Horse and Burro Program a way forward 113). The vaccine is temporary but effective for up to twenty-two months. The effects of PZP wears off and normal reproduction can resume four years after the injection. This is a treatment and release program that is not harmful. They use helicopter roundups to gather the horses and separate out the mares in order to vaccinate them. Modified rifles with loaded darts of PZP can also be used to vaccinate the mares. It is not harmful to the animals and the lifespan increases and health improves with the vaccinated mares. Mares that are vaccinated live 5-10 years longer than untreated mares. (“Fertility Control” 1). The goal of this method is to reduce the population to match the carrying capacity of the land. Rashmi Shivni agrees when he writes “The Ultimate goal is to lower the population to match the carrying capacity of the land, and Dr. Mcdonnell said the best way to do this is to control fertility” (Shivni 2). Porcine Zona Pellucida vaccine controls the
Once the stallion is done on the phantom I take the AV back out of the phantom and take it into our lab. While my grandmother puts the horse away. I take the semen into the lab where I make sure it is good enough to breed a mare with. The first thing I do is put a sample under the micro scope. I look to make sure they are in good shape because there is no reason in trying to breed with dead sperm. Once I see that there is enough moving I put it into a machine that counts the amount of sperm. The number has to be above 150 to even be worth using, and 300 is the best we have ever gotten. By this time my grandmother comes in to help me do the math calculations. We mix the semen with extender, which is what the semen feeds off of. After this I go get the mare and put her in the stocks to keep her from kicking anyone. My job was to clean the mare out so no manure was in the way when my grandmother goes in with a probe to look around. Then my grandmother looks on each ovary to see if the mare is in heat. When the mare is in heat, my grandmother leaves the rest to me, while she moves on to the next horse in
If you apply too much pressure and puncture a hole through the reproductive tract and into the rectum it can have serious consequences and can even be fatal to the mare. There is also an increased chance of spreading disease if the semen isn’t screened properly. Some of the most common diseases that are passed on through semen are Contagious Equine Metritis, Equine Viral Arteritis, and Equine Infection Anemia. These viruses are transported in the semen and can survive both chilling and freezing so any imported semen has to undergo strict screening tests and documentation. The effects of these diseases can be devastating to the horse population. Even though there are problems and risks associated with artificial insemination in horses there are also benefits to it too and ways that you can mitigate the risks. If the procedure is preformed in a vet clinic the stocks can be used to safely position the mare for scanning and inseminating, as well as vets know how to do the procedure to that if the horse move there is less of a risk of damaging anything. Mares can also be sedated to do the procedure if its done on a farm where there are no stocks present. This will be more costly however because you have to give the mare drugs to sedate her. another advantage to using AI is if you have a stallion that is
When breeding these cattle, high fertility Angus bulls will be used. Some of the bulls with be bred to straight Angus cows and heifers, while others will be bred to pure or mixed Hereford cows and heifers. Around 20 bulls will be present in this herd, noting that many head in this herd are of the younger age and not ready to breed. This number of high fertility bulls will ensure that most of the cows should be bred by the time breeding season is coming to an end. Around the time for breeding season to end, all female cattle will be brought in to be preg-checked. If not pregnant, that cow will be separated into a corral and will need to be artificially inseminated. Once all cows have gone through, the females that need to be artificially inseminated will wait until the next day or couple days to
The procedure consisted of external anatomy. We were asked to exam several characteristics of the unborn pig which includes: determining the age of the fetus by measuring the body length from its snout to the rump, examine the amount of hair on body, examine the lips, nostrils, ears, eyes, feet, chest, stomach, nipples and sexual organs. The procedure also consisted of internal anatomy which includes the oral cavity, digestive system, circulatory system, respiratory system and urogenital system.
Depending on how developed the pig is, the testes can be found in different locations, but for the fetal pig, the testes can usually be found within the abdomen, specifically the inguinal canals. If not, they will be found in the scrotal sacs.
Assisted reproductive technologies is “any fertilization consisting of tampering with of gametes/ embryos outside the female body and then putting the gametes/embryos into the female body.” (Donchin 11) These procedures offers a way for several of families who have spent countless time attempting to have a child of their own, but have drained all other possibilities, to do so. The new advancement in reproductive technologies give significant aid to couples who are unable to reproduce, and make many new reproductive arrangements possible. The different options available for adults considering childrearing in unusual ways under new reproductive methods are two-party and third-party assisted reproduction. Assisted reproduction can raise some ethical
If a cow, displaying the ‘double muscled’ characteristic was produced, this enables the breeder to inbreed this cow, with the original homozygous recessive bull to create a purely ‘Belgian Blue’ breed. Other technology has increased the concentration of these desirable traits. To ensure farmers are not jeopardising their stock population, artificial insemination is a new form of genetic engineering technology. Artificial insemination/embryo breeding is a process that involves inserting the semen sample of a bull and inserting it into the heifers uterus. Or taking eggs from a heifer and semen from a bull and inserting into the uterus of another heifer. This process can increase the concentration of selective breeding as the cows with less desirable traits are enable to breed as farmers insert reproductive cells of the biggest and best cattle into to the average cows and therefore increase production of offspring. Embryo breeding has become reasonably affordable and therefore farmers can increase productivity to meet increased meat
This experiment will be conducted using fifty Angus calves born within 2 weeks of the same date. To insure the calves are born within this time frame the calves will be collected from cows that have been inseminated from the same bull at the same time and tested positive for pregnancy. These calves will be castrated with the Short scrotum method with the use of a rubber ring. This method involves restraining the calf, preferably in a squeeze chute, and taking a tool to expand the tight rubber band and placing both testicles through the band. While doing this the band must be firmly against the naval at the base of the scrotum before releasing the rubber band. Twenty-five of the calves will be castrated at a week old. The other twenty-five will be castrated at the age of
When pigs are born, their neutered consciously, the process is horror. They scream, and struggle, trying to escape from the awful procedure.
Scientists at the Genetics and In Vitro Fertilization Institute in Virginia have already adapted a sperm sorting system that was originally developed for breeding farm animals. This system offers patients the option of predetermining
Assisted reproductive technologies include any fertilization involving manipulation of gametes/ embryos outside the human body and transfer of gametes/embryos into the body. They offer biomedical parenthood to various infertile couples who have often spent years trying to have a child and have exhausted all other avenues to have a child of their own. The new reproductive technologies give great help to infertile couples and make many new reproductive arrangements possible. The possibilities available for couples contemplating parenthood in unconventional ways under new reproductive techniques are two-party and third-party assisted reproduction. Assisted reproduction can raise some ethical concerns such as - the selection of the sex, how to
It is common for the semen of 2-3 bulls to be used to ensure at least one quality sample to produce a pregnancy. In the instance that multiple donors are used, parentage is confirmed via DNA analysis. Most frequently, nonsurgical insemination is performed. This method calls for a trained and accommodating elephant as a large bore cannula is inserted into the lower urogenital tract. A 3m endoscope is inserted through the cannula and conducted to the hymen in first time mothers and the cervix or uterine horn of a cow that has calved. A small insemination cannula is used to deposit semen into the vagina, threaded through the hymen in nulliparous cows. In parous cows the semen may be deposited further into the uterus.14 Surgical insemination
Harvested for their urine, the horses suffer for the production of the drug hormone replacement drugs premarin (Pregnant Mare's Urine). At PMU farms mares in their third or
Artificial reproductive technology (ART) is defined as procedures which stimulate a woman 's ovaries to produce eggs, the eggs are then removed, combined with sperm, and then returned to a woman 's body (Bell, 2016). ART is becoming more and more popular throughout that globe. This method of conceiving children gives women who may be struggling with infertility options that were not possible before the advent of such methods. ART is relevant to the sociological definition of global health because it is evidence of the fact that our world has become interdependent especially when it comes to medical technology. However with ART comes the notion of the culture of disguise and in many countries this is an integral part of artificial reproductive technology process. With that being said, sociologists should look to study and understand the culture of disguise in ART as it pertains to global health and it shapes interactions between people and the society they live in.