Another method that is commonly used as an intervention for students with ASD is the Early Start Denver Model (ESDM). ESDM is an inclusive behavioral intervention for infants to preschool-aged children (Dawson et al., 2009; Vivanti et al., 2014). The learning objectives are based on individual strengths and weaknesses, with a focus on developmental fields that are foundational to social and social-cognitive learning and development (Vivanti et al., 2014). The students with ASD work to enhance their verbal and nonverbal communication, emotion sharing, imitation, joint attention, play, social orienting, and attention (Rogers et al., 2012).
have a hard time comprehending and understanding what they read. The article also mentions how these children can benefit from different interventions.
The research-based instructional practices for supporting students with reading, mathematics, and language disabilities in the science and social studies content areas throughout elementary school include concept maps, self-questioning strategy, SQ3R strategy, problem-solving strategy, modified reciprocal teaching strategy and K–W–L strategy. Concept maps are forms of graphic organizers that are utilized in the illustration of relationships between
This section focuses on the standard, “Children demonstrate strategies for reasoning and problem solving” (Early Childhood Iowa, 2012, p. 99). Through this standard, a child will: show interest in and find a variety of solutions to questions, tasks, or problems; recognize and solve problems through active exploration, including trial and error, and through interactions and discussions with peers and adults; share ideas or make suggestions of how to solve a problem presented by another person. Adults must support these benchmarks by providing opportunities for each child to try new ways of using materials, creating a safe environment with developmentally appropriate materials that offer an appropriate amount of stimulation and choice for each child to explore and play with, allowing each child time to process experiences and information, talking through problems with children to model problem-solving, holding class meetings to discuss issues that may occur and have the children brainstorm solutions, and choosing appropriate materials that promote creativity, self-expression, number, and emerging literacy skills (Early Childhood Iowa,
During the second quarter, Lisa Beresford and I have met weekly or sometime more. Our discussions for this quarter have been focusing on several different topics. First, we have discussed different transition activities and strategies that we can use to help the students to be successful. We have discussed transition plans (IEP portion), for students that want to attend the CTC next year, and also students that are graduating this year.
Autism is a developmental disorder that affects 1 in 68 children (CDC, 2014). It is a wide spectrum ranging from mild to severe. Diagnostic criteria have evolved to 2 main categorical commonalities along the spectrum. According to the DSM-V (APA, 2013), they are deficits in social communication and interaction across multiple settings and restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior, interests or activities. Additional characteristics like lack of or non functional speech patterns
Tasheka Sutton-Young has carried a research to analyze provided services for ASD students transitioning from secondary to postsecondary education. Semi-sturcured interviews were held with managers and directors of disability/accessibility services in 5 different community colleges. The purpose of the research is to find out the challenges that ASD students are facing and the ways of improving this transitioning process. While students with disabilities are being prepared for the academic expectations of college through their IEPs, they are ill prepared for the social and psychological dimentions of their higher education experience (Wehman, 2008). So this study was held to understand possible types of support that students can benefit
According to Ben-Arieh & Miller (2009) children who do not express themselves in any way, who do not understand language, lacks non-verbal communicative interactions or does not respond to his or her name when called are the most common communicative symptoms you can identify the child may have ASD. Other ways you can tell the child has ASD communicative problems are the requirement of repeating something-like a question-over and over again, when the child exercises echolalia-where he or she quickly respond with the question you asked them or when he or she recites a short clip of a movie or a conversation he heard, and when the child reverses pronouns-when he uses “you” when he actually means “me”. Children with ASD usually have a hard
The term “Learning Disabilities” refers to a range of major problems that a child may or may not have with regard to learning in the classroom (Friend, M). Typically, if a child displays significant trouble with learning and appears to be behind his or her peers in performance, he or she may receive special education.
All individuals must be able to make transitions from one activity or from one setting to another throughout the day. Whether at home, school, or in the workplace, transitions naturally occur frequently and require individuals to stop an activity, move from one location to another, and begin something new. Researchers report that 25% of a school day is spent in transition activities; such as putting personal items in designated locations like lockers, moving from classroom to classroom, going to the cafeteria, coming in from the playground and gathering needed materials to start working (Sainato, Strain, Lefebvre, & Rapp, 1987). Individuals with ASD have demonstrated a greater difficulty in shifting attention from one task to another or accepting
[“Everyday Mathematics” is the math curriculum the school uses currently. The 5th grade general education teachers do not follow this curriculum. They develop their own lesson plans every week and align them with Minnesota Education Board standards for the 5th grade. I have developed my lesson plans keeping in mind my focus learner’s annual math IEP goals. Since there was no specific textbook used to teach math, I decided to base the content of the learning segment based on a research-based intervention called “Solving Math Word Problem: Teaching Students with Learning Disabilities Using Schema-Based Instructions done by Asha K. Jitendra in 2007. The features of the above evidence-based intervention align with state and national standards,
Like the Montessori Method, PRT uses the child’s interests in the natural setting, uses carefully selected materials to create learning opportunities, and follows the child’s lead to respond accordingly, and uses natural reinforcers (Koegel, Koegel, Harrower & Carter, 1999), and encourages progress with difficult tasks (Schreiber, 2000; Schreibman et al., 2015). PRT and the Montessori Method each seek to increase children’s independence and self-regulation while developing a broad range of skills critical to early childhood development. In fact, PRT focuses on improving the play skills and social interactions of young children with ASD. Each of these skills is nurtured in a Montessori classroom. However, although PRT is flexible and appears very dynamic in practice, it is more systematic and structured than incidental teaching. Significant evidence supports the use of PRT for young children with ASD and we believe this approach could be applied in a Montessori classroom. Teachers in traditional classrooms have been trained to implement PRT accurately (Suhrheinrich, 2015), so extending PRT to the Montessori classroom seems to be a reasonable next step. Yet there are unique challenges in training teachers to fidelity even when no differences in philosophy are present (Suhrheinrich et al., 2013). For this reason, we believe experts in each of these models would need to collaborate to identify methods for maintaining the daily routines and philosophical underpinnings associated with the Montessori Method without sacrificing the precision of PRT that is necessary to produce robust outcomes for young children with
Autism have been recognized as in existence since the 1940s but only in recent years it has been recognised under the standardized psychiatric diagnostic classification schemes. It is not unusual for people with ASD to be at risk of displaying challenging behaviours which could lead to offending behaviours, however, on the other hand they can also be at lower risk as they find rules helpful in surviving in the social world. This paper will look at what is ASD, studies on ASD individuals and offending behaviours, explanations on the outcomes of the studies and conclusion on these findings.
In the article, “Teaching elementary students with developmental disabilities to recruit teacher attention in the general education classroom: effects on teacher praise and academic productivity”, discusses prior research that was completed on the impact of teacher praise on student achievement and behavior. Prior research has shown that by giving a student more praise and attention, greatly improves student behavior in the classroom and also have a positive impact on student achievement levels. However, with this research being conducted, researcher White, found that teacher approval comments dropped with each grade level starting in the second grade. Furthermore, comments that displayed disapproval increased grew each year. This research was backed by several other researchers that were also noted in the previous literature section. Craft poses the thought that students can only be praised for behaviors that are noticed by the teacher. Studies have gone on to examine teachers that work with students on how to receive the teacher’s attention by teaching the students how to seek approval appropriately in the classroom setting. Craft refers to this process as “recruiting responses” (Craft, Alber, & Heward, 1998). Further studies have also look at individuals with disabilities such as autism, developmental delays and mental retardation, as well as individuals in a variety of different institutions. There was data to show that recruiting from students did show
Children and young people with ASD often require much more structure in their environments than others in order to learn (Iovannone et al., 2003).’Structure’ is not consistently defined, but a programme might be considerd structured when the curriculum is clear and comprehensible or predictable to both the children and