Homozygous: Refers to expressing the same alleles for a particular trait. If black was dominant for the above chicken, and the alleles were coded for by B, if it was homozygous, the chicken’s genotype would be BB.
Body I. First main point - What is Cystic Fibrosis? A. Cystic Fibrosis is a life long hereditary disease that They are also accompanied by many medicines and other treatments to help them with the comfort of cystic fibrosis.
Cystic fibrosis is an existence restricting autosomal recessive disorder that influences 70,000 people around the world. The condition is known to affect principally those of European descent, though cystic fibrosis has been accounted for in all races and ethnicities.  Unusually viscous emissions in the airway of the lungs and in ducts of the pancreas in people with cystic fibrosis cause hindrances that prompt aggravation, tissue harm and destruction of both organ systems. Studies show that Cystic Fibrosis is more prominent in White Americans than African Americans, and Hispanics. A large number of Americans are carriers of this mutated Cystic Fibrosis gene, however if an individual is affected they must acquire two of these genes keeping
Air the vital ingredient of life. Without air there will be no oxygen. Now imagine having lungs that will not fill correctly. People with cystic fibrosis (CF) live with this everyday of their life. With CF people lack the special enzyme to break up mucous. Without the
Cystic Fibrosis Nicholas Culver Introduction Cystic fibrosis is an inherited disease. It’s very common In the United States. It’s also very common amongst the Caucasian population. Its effects 1 in every 3,000 new born babies. Cystic fibrosis is less common in other ethnic groups. Effecting 1 in every 17,000 African Americans and 1 in every 30,000 Asian Americans. It causes the body to make a very thick type of mucus. The mucus is caused by an unbalance in salt in a person’s body. Leaving few to no salt and water on the outside of cells. When this happens the thin mucus that keeps the lungs free of germs becomes sticky. Cystic fibrosis effects the liver, lungs, pancreas, and the intestines. This disease makes it hard to breath and causes serious lung infections. The mucus affects the digestion by blocking the pancreas
Human cells carry two copies of each chromosome they have two versions of each gene and the different versions are called alleles. Alleles can be either dominant or recessive. Dominant alleles means you have one copy of the gene or your heterozygous. Recessive alleles means you have two copies of the gene or your homozygous.
Cystic Fibrosis is a disorder where the exocrine glands secrete abnormally thick mucus, leading to obstruction of the pancreas and chronic infections of the lungs, which usually cause death in childhood or early adulthood. Some mildly affected patients may survive longer. Doctors can diagnose the disease by testing the patients perspiration because people with Cystic Fibrosis have
Cystic fibrosis is a continuous, genetic disease that causes persistent lung infections and limits the ability to breathe over a period of time (Cystic Fibrosis Foundation). When an individual has cystic fibrosis, they tend to have lots of various lung problems. The overall cause of their lung problems is related to basic problems with diffusion and osmosis in the large airways of the lungs. The non-working cystic fibrosis proteins do not allow salt or water to enter the air space, resulting in the mucus layer to be extremely concentrated and very sticky. When you focus on individuals without cystic fibrosis, you can see that they have a small layer of salt water in the big airways of their lungs. This layer of salt water lies underneath
Contact with germs is a concern for people with cystic fibrosis. Sticky mucus build up in the lung allow these germs to thrive and multiple (About Cystic Fibrosis, 2013). Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a gram-negative bacteria very commonly carried around by healthy individuals without any symptoms. But for people who are ill and have weak immune systems, this bacteria can cause a deadly infection. Infection is hard to treat because Pseudomonas aeruginosa can resist many antibiotics. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is spread easily in hospitals by health care professionals and uncleansed medical equipment. This serious infection can cause pneumonia in the lungs and cause septic shock if released into the blood stream (CDC 2014). Therefore, the exposure to
Cystic Fibrosis Cystic Fibrosis is a genetic disease that causes the body’s lungs to generate a different type of mucus than a non-infected body would. The contaminated lungs will produce mucus that is thick and adhesive which clogs the lungs and leads to an unpleasant and abhorrent lung infection. CF also interferes with the pancreas, disallowing the digestive enzymes from breaking down and absorbing food in the intestine. This can result in low nutrition, feeble growth, excessive sweat production, difficulties in breathing, and sometimes lung disease. When producing extra sweat and mucus, the body loses salt. If too much salt is lost, it can cause abnormal heart rhythms, disturbance of minerals in the blood, and perhaps, shock.
Like the world around us the medical field is always changing. It is always pushing forward, trying to understand mysteries of the human body that have boggled researchers for decades. What confuses scientists more, are the organisms or conditions that create these abnormalities that can send the human body into a downward spiral. Disease is something that has affected human civilization since the dawn of time. It can either be chronic or acute, but in either case it has the potential to bring havoc to the human body systems that can lead to devastating consequences. Generally there are two main types of diseases, ones caused by invading pathogens and those which are hereditary. One hereditary disease that can be particularly tragic is
Cystic fibrosis is a hereditary disease of the secretory glands (National Heart, Lungs, and Blood Institute[NHLBI] , "What Is Cystic Fibrosis?", 2013). People who have cystic fibrosis inherit two defective genes, one from each parent (NHLBI , "What Is Cystic Fibrosis?", 2013). The body parts affected by cystic fibrosis are the lungs, pancreas, intestines, sinuses, and sex organs (NHLBI , "What Is Cystic Fibrosis?", 2013). The gene at fault for causing cystic fibrosis is the CFTR (cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator) gene (Genetics Home Reference, "CFTR gene", 2014). The transport of salts and chloride in and out of the cells is affected by the mutation of this gene (Cystic Fibrosis Research Inc., "About Cystic Fibrosis"). This disease most commonly affects Caucasians of North European descent (NHLBI , "What Is Cystic Fibrosis?", 2013).
Cystic Fibrosis and Gene Therapy The average life span of a person with Cystic Fibrosis is 25-30 years of age. Although the more traditional treatments of this disease are adequate, is there something else that could be even better? Gene therapy is fast becoming one of the more studied aspects of genetics today. Let's take a look at some details of Cystic Fibrosis and gene therapy.
Cystic Fibrosis Pathophysiology Pathophysiology Cystic Fibrosis (CF) is an autosomal recessive gene that causes a wide range of symptoms because there are over 1,000 changes or mutations that can occur within the cystic fibrosis transmembrane receptor (CFTR) protein. The CFTR protein is generally a chloride ion chain “regulated by cyclic adenosine monophosphate and therefore can act as a regulator of other electrolyte channels”(Grossman, S., & Grossman, L. 2005, p. 46). Typically this protein allows chloride ions to exit mucus-producing cells allowing water to flow in and thin the mucus. However, if the CFTR protein has been mutated, such as in cystic fibrosis, chloride ions cannot exit. This causes the mucus to thicken, become sticky, and obstruct the various channels it passes through. This build up of mucus also prevents bacteria from being cleaned from cells thoroughly increasing the patients risk for infections (Grossman, S., & Grossman, L. 2005). However, the severity of CF depends on whether the patients have complete or partial loss of the CFTR gene. If the person has the classic form of CF abnormalities of CFTR will commonly affect “…the respiratory, gastrointestinal, endocrine and metabolic, and genitourinary systems”(Schram, C. 2012). However, if people have atypical forms of CF their genetic disorder may only affect one of the organ systems and may not be found until the patient develops symptoms in their late childhood, early adolescence, or adulthood
Introduction Cystic fibrosis is an inherited disease that ultimately leads to death. It affects every racial group worldwide, but its prevalence varies from country to country. In those with cystic fibrosis, the lungs and digestive system are primarily affected by the disease. With the new developments in treatment and management, the 50 percent survival rate from the 1970’s has greatly improved, allowing patients to continue to live their lives longer than ever expected in the past. The new developments in prevention of exacerbations, therapy drugs and methods to preserve lung function have done great things to help patients extend their lives. Education is another important aspect of treating cystic fibrosis. For example, more the