Assess The Difference Between Positive And Negative Reinforcement

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Reinforcement theory refers to the stimuli used to produce desired behaviours with different occurrences and schedules (Skinner, 1963). There are three principles in reinforcement theory which are reinforcement, punishment, and extinction. The primary aim of reinforcement is to increase the probability of certain responses among moral value; while punishment is aimed to decrease the probability or the occurrence of certain responses; and extinction is aimed to reduced motivation and eliminated the behaviour to their own religions.
Reinforcement is the most important principle of reinforcement theory which divided to positive reinforcement and negative reinforcement. Positive reinforcement also known as reward indicated that increased in voluntary responses are explained by the addition of stimulus to the environment, while negative reinforcement states that removal of an unpleasant stimulus lead to an increased in voluntary responses. The stimulus involved in positive reinforcement can be of monetary rewards (e.g., pay raise, promotion), non-monetary rewards (e.g., holiday
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Punishment, as one of the reinforcement-theory strategies has been used commonly but it may bring potentially negative side effects. Therefore, punishment should not been used before positive and negative reinforcement fail. The threat of punishment for undesired behaviours is more effective than the use of punishment because punishment decreases undesirable behaviours only temporarily and may create anger and resentment, which hurt communication and undermine goodwill and personal initiative of followers (Uduji, 2013). The stimulus involved in punishment can include monetary punishment (e.g., salary deduction, demotion), non-monetary punishment (e.g., reduced sponsored holiday trips), or behavioural responses (e.g.,
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