Modern society now especially since 1997 have tried putting children first such as committing to meeting children’s needs. There are still problems such as school truancy, adolescents not in education or training and also child protection as there have been tragic deaths including baby P and Victoria climbie, which her death was largely responsible for the formation of every child matters inactive plus a lot of other changes in different systems,
2.2 Describe with examples the importance of recognising and responding to concerns about children and young people’s development
215 chapter 8 Sociology In Our Times: The Essentials) this is to suggest that the different classes in society are in conflict because the more powerful groups maintain and control the distribution of resources, rewards, privileges and opportunities by exploiting the less powerful. They also believe that inequality is a result of profits being generated from the cost of labour being less than the cost of the goods and services being produced from that labour, also known as the surplus value. Conflict theorists do not believe that stratification is functional for society, or that it serves as a source of stability. Rather, they believe that stratification will lead to instability and social change.
The way children grow up and are treated by their parents has changed immensely from the 18 and 1900s. Adult perspective of children has also changed. Children are no longer viewed as property, but an actual human being who has choices. New laws and organizations have outlawed and forbid certain acts against children. In the United States, if one is under the age of 18 years old they are considered a child. There is a vast difference between how children were treated in the 1800s and in today’s society; whether it’s child abuse or child labor, how children are raised has changed for the better.
Privileged time, social construct, golden age, separateness, toxic childhood, child-centred, march of progress, conflict view, child liberationists, globalisation, information hierarchy
During early modern Europe, children were viewed in many different ways which changed how parents chose to raise their children. During the 1500’s, the mortality rates for children were high, therefore children were viewed as if they were adults and very precious if they survived, many people believed that they needed to treat children harshly to make them strong. In the 1600’s, children were raised tenderly as they were rational beings that could use reason. Children were viewed in many ways during early modern Europe to be rational, precious, and in need of guidance where these views determined the parents’ choice in child rearing to behaving harshly to kind guidance.
Childhood studies is a subject area surrounding the study of children’s lives through many different concepts or ideas with many different features. It is related to many different fields such as law, history, sociology, health, anthropology and much more as Martin Woodhead (Open University) said “It uses multiple methods rather than just singular methods” and is “inter-disciplinary” Childhood studies expresses and tries to understand the many different parts of a child’s life and the different issues surrounding childhood, therefore it has many different features.
Child-rearing from the 16th to the 18th century changed because the child death rate went up during this time period. This caused parents to distance themselves from their children until they grew into adulthood because they just did not know if they were going to survive. Adults did not want to invest that much time and get to emotionally attached to something that was going to die. These distancing views caused adults attitudes towards children to change, they began to have such views as severely disciplining children, wet nursing, and that kids were taught evil or taught to be bad.
The aim of this paper is to analyse three short abridgments about education and child rearing in the 19th century. In the course of the essay it is to be examined who the writers were and how the texts were written and published.
Conflict theory began with Karl Marx and his belief that capitalist societies are powered and controlled the conflict between social classes. Those who possessed a means of production, called the bourgeois, and and those that had to work for the bourgeois, called the proletariat. He felt that all elements of society were based around this struggle for control and for resources (Kendall 2014: 12 ). Conflict theorists believe that all humans behavior, all our social norms, all our systems of government, our employment, and our systems of education are the result of conflicts between competing groups. All of society is shaped by this great power struggle. Conflict theory depends on an unequal power balance, one group controls the other group, using their social power to keep the other group subjugated. Conflict theory has evolved past just considering class and has began to consider other competing groups. The struggles between men and women, rich and poor, whites and people of color, and LGBTQIA individuals and straight people are now taken into consideration by conflict theorists. Society is constantly changing because of the battles between conflicting interests (Kendall 2014: 17).
The sociology of childhood is a theoretical approach that has been increasingly used within the field of childhood research studies. Previously, research about childhood focused largely on telling stories about children, treating them as objects. Conversely, the sociology of childhood involves children as social agents and active contributors to research (Grieshaber, 2007). As stated by Grieshaber (2007), the sociology of childhood is guided by six major tenets. These include that childhood is a social construct, childhood is a variable of social analysis, childhood is closely connected to other variables such as class and gender, children’s relationships and cultures are worthy of study in their own right, children are considered active, rather than passive agents in their daily lives and are competent and knowledgeable about their own lives (p. 871). The fundamental goal of the sociology of childhood is to develop an approach that integrates children’s perspectives with those of their caregivers. Advocates for the sociology of childhood are committed to the view that children are more capable and independent than they may seem, and hope to develop a greater understanding of children’s abilities by researching them as social agents (Albanese, 2009). Because the sociology of childhood is relatively new, there has been little analysis on the six tenets that form the basis of it (Kay, Tisdall, & Punch, 2012). It is also important to note that with an increased amount of research being done with children, rather than to children, will come a number of ethical issues (Christensen & Prout, 2002). Therefore, the sociology of childhood has been used to study some of the ethical responsibilities of involving children in research. For example, it has been used to investigate a range of circumstances such as the power differential between a child research participant and an adult researcher (Dockett & Perry, 2005)
The child, in the United Kingdom, is categorised within a legal framework as anyone under the age of eighteen years of age. Thorne, (2009) suggests that childhood follows a pattern
As recently acknowledged the UNCRC is a powerful facilitator for action on behalf of young children and from this has a major role on the development of our children today. Within the lengthy list of rights, there is one in particular which this paper intends to aim focus on is “Children have a right to live and develop to their full potential” (Woodhead, 1998). The importance of distinguishing this policy as a key area above all others is an essential requirement within a developmental aspect as, the significance of having this law in place is endless. The key aspects which this law promotes are: the future generation to become all that they can be; encouraging future education and social development and due to this, the benefits of which are excessive. (Woodhead, 1998). Since the late 1800’s the law states that “children have the right to development to their full potential” was put in place. It provided teachers, parents and also caregivers with the understanding that a child is unique and an