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1. State whether the following statements are true or false. Give reasons for the same.

i) There are differences in the rate of development of boys and girls. True
Tbere are differences in the rate of development of boys and girls. In prenatal period the skeletal system of girls grows faster as compared to boys. Therefore, at b i girls are ahead of boys in their skeletal development. The period of puberty is about two years earlier for girls than for boys.

ii) Critical periods are the only times for learning particular skills. Fasle
Critical periods are the best times for learning particular skills. Such periods are critical for development because during these periods the child is ready to leam a particular skill. For example, a child
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They also show more empathy towards other adults and children. Secure or insecure attachment thus has long-term impact on the child's personality. (5 x 2 = 10 marks)

3. What do you understand by the term ‘cognition’? Discuss how caregivers can promote cognitive development of children during the first six years of life.
Cognition deals with the development of thought. It is mncerned with how children and adults understand the world around them.
Caregivers must channelize the child's initiative towards constructive ends, which will help her to develop self-confidence.
The caregivers have to teach the child self-control and limits of her behaviour but they have to do so without curbing her initiative. If something must not be done, they must explain to the child why it is so, instead of simply restricting her actions.
It would be more useful if caregivers inculcate desirable social values, without being overly concerned about whether the values are conventionally masculine or feminine.
Affection-oriented techniques, which rely on reasoning with the child to foster the desired behaviour and appeal to the child's sense of responsibility, have a beneficial impact, while power-oriented techniques, which rely on threatening the child or withholding privileges without explanation, can be harmful.
The affection-oriented way of disciplining is more effective in
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