Assignment 2.1 Virtual Simulation

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2.1.1. Virtual Simulation
Standard Simulators are used to visualize the treatment area. It mimics the motions of a radiation therapy treatment unit. It is a high investment in terms of space, personnel and money, and can easily be replaced with a Virtual Simulator (VS). This is system software that uses the computed tomography (CT) data to construct a 3 dimensional (3D) patient, using standard computers in stead of a physical patient. The CT is done with localization reference markers made from radio-opaque markers, which is tattooed on the patient for accurate daily setup. The beams can be placed and visualized. The software can create beams eye views (BEV) and digitally reconstructed radiographs. The precise move from CT reference to isocenter can be exported to the treatment unit (Zimeras, 2013). It provides high-quality imaging tools to alter size and contrast, and can be connected to any DICOM supporting CT/MR scanner. Once completed the beams,
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Intra-operative Treatment Technique

Intraoperative radiation therapy (IORT) delivers during surgery a concentrated dose of radiation tumor site immediately after a tumor is removed.
Radiation is delivered in a single treatment session, while also conserving healthy tissue and organs at risk, allowing a higher radiation dose to be delivered to the tumor bed. While reducing radiation treatment time, it reduces side effects, and kills the microscopic disease reducing the risk of recurrence, all in about four to five minutes
Standard radiation treatments can be boosted during surgery, while the delivery of the main prescription can commence after recovery, leading to fewer side effects.
While this treatment is generally only used for early stage disease, patients are only eligible for IORT if they are surgical candidates (Cancer Centers of America, 2017). . Figure 2: Intra-operative radiation delivered to the tumour bed (Alta Bates Summit Medical Center,
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