Assignment of Business Law

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Questions

1. With examples explain the following general principles of law a. Ne bis in idem b. In dubio pro reo c. Fraus omnia corrumpit 2. Give the Institutional framework of the applicability of accountability principle in Rwanda

Q.1.
A. THE PRINCIPLE OF NE BIS IN IDEM: A person may not be tried for a criminal offense for which he or she has previously been finally convicted or acquitted.
The principle of ne bis in ide, also known as double jeopardy, is deemed a constitutional right and a procedural right in the constitutions or the domestic registration of many states. It is also an internationally protected human right under the international Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, Article14(7);the American
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Q.2. Institutional framework of the applicability of the accountability principle in Rwanda.
Rwanda is trying to enhance accountability especially in the public sector by assessing the extent to which the executive can be held accountable for its use of funds and for the results of its actions by the electorate and by the legislature and judiciary, and the extent to which public employees within the executive are required to account for administrative decisions, use of resources, and results obtained.
There are opportunities to strengthen accountability, by working with bodies that provide an oversight function monitoring government performance. This section examines institutions providing two types of accountability: horizontal accountability between governmental and Constitutional bodies (for example the role of parliament in monitoring the executive) and vertical accountability between government and organized groups of citizens (for example, civil society, private sector and media organisations). Relevant principles in supporting the function of institutions of accountability are to ensure operational independence, to ensure appropriate separation of judicial, political and administrative functions when applying regulation, building integrity and ethical standards within the institutions, and strengthening capacity, advocacy and communications functions.
In terms of horizontal accountability,

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