Bipolar I is identified by the length and severity of the manic and depressive episodes. The manic episodes must last for at least seven days or they must be so severe that a person requires immediate hospitalization. The depressive episodes last around two weeks. These episodes, both manic and depressive, must be an extreme, major alteration from the person’s normal behavior. An effective treatment plan for bipolar I includes medication and psychotherapy. The medication helps with stabilizing a person’s mood and the psychotherapy is for the prevention of relapse and the reduction of symptom severity. Many people with bipolar I take combination medicine treatment. The treatment includes a mood stabilizer; sometimes an anticonvulsant other times a non anticonvulsant, and an antidepressant, to help reduce depression episodes. Doctors prescribe both an anticonvulsant and an
To be diagnosed with bipolar disorder under the DSM requirements, a person must have a manic episode that lasts at least seven days or has severe symptoms that can possibly send them to a hospital or have sent them to a hospital, and the person usually experiences about two weeks of a depressive episode (NIMH, 2015). People with bipolar disorder can be misdiagnosed. The depressive episodes are very similar to major depression. In some forms of bipolar disorder, psychotic factors are present like hallucinations or delusions which may lead to a misdiagnosis of schizophrenia (Schacter et al., 2015).
Bipolar disorder is a mood disorder known for severe persistent mood instabilities between mania and depression, . It causes unusual changes in mood, energy, and activity levels which makes ability to perform daily tasks very hard. (Concepts Advisory Panel [CAP], 2015). BPD affects more than 2.3 million adult Americans, or 1% of the population. (Guo, Patel, Li, & Keck 2010). There are four basic types of bipolar spectrum; All of them involve clear change in the mood energy, and activity levels (CAP,2015). These mood incidences’ ranges from periods of extremely high and energized behavior known as Manic episodes to very sad, or hopeless periods known as depressive episodes. Bipolar I disorder, the client has at least one episode of manic followed by major depression. Bipolar II disorder, the client has one or more hypomanic and major depressive episodes, the other not so severe and less diagnoses type of Bipolar is chronic mood disorder that lasts more two years with combination of hypomania and dysthymia. (CAP,2015). This paper will go into, Bipolar I, Manic episodes, the pathophysiology, Sign and symptoms, treatments, comorbidity, nursing intervention and nursing and patient therapeutic relationship.
Bipolar Disorder is a brain disorder that is characterized by abnormal changes in mood, energy and activity levels (“National Institute of Mental Health”). Manic-depressive illness is also another name that bipolar disorder is commonly referred to as (“National Institute of Mental Health”). This disorder has four basic types including, bipolar I, bipolar II, cyclothymic, and any other which do not perfectly fit the first three. All four of the types have episodes of extreme highs, manic periods, and extreme lows, depressive periods. Symptoms can range greatly and depend on what type of episode the affected is having. Manic episodes can include, but are not limited to: having extraordinarily high amounts of energy, activity,
Bipolar disorder also known as manic depression has always been a mystery since the 16th century. History has shown that it can appear in almost everyone. Bipolar disorder causes mood swings in energy, thinking, and other behavior. Having a bipolar disorder can be very disabling (Kapczinski). A study was evaluated and about 1.3% of the U.S population of people suffers from bipolar disorder. Stressors and environmental influences can trigger and cause a person to go through numerous episodes. Bipolar disorder is characterized according to the severity of the stages. According to Kapczinski, there are four different stages that a person with bipolar disorder can experience. The prognosis of a disorder is different in each particular patient
Bipolar disorder, also known as, "manic-depressive illness," is a brain disorder that results in unusual shifts in a person's mood, energy, and ability to function. More than two million American adults (or, about one per cent of the population aged eighteen and older in any given year) are afflicted by this affective disorder (1). Yet, because it cannot be revealed by a blood test or other physiological means, patients may suffer for years before it is properly diagnosed and treated. Fortunately, once one is diagnosed with bipolar disorder, the acute symptoms of the disease can be effectively mitigated by lithium and certain anticonvulsant drugs, the most popular being Depakote (also known as
Bipolar Disorder is a mental illness in which a person's mood alternates between extreme mania and depression. Bipolar disorder is also called manic-depressive illness. In a related disorder called cyclothymic disorder (sometimes called Bipolar III), a person's mood alternates between mild depression and mild mania. Some people with cyclothymic disorder later develop full-blown bipolar disorder. Rates of bipolar disorder are similar throughout the world. At least fifteen percent of people with bipolar disorder commit suicide. Bipolar disorder is much less common than depression. Many people with bipolar disorder function normally between episodes. Medications known as "mood stabilizers" are usually prescribed by
The purpose of this essay is to discuss the clinical differences in the diagnosis of both Major Depressive Disorder (Unipolar depression) and Bipolar Depression can be made on the basis of characteristics of a Major Depressive Episode (MDE). That is, can an MDE in patients with Major Depressive Disorder be differentiated from a MDE in patients with Bipolar Disorder? Firstly, the extremes in mood, Major Depressive Episode and mania/hypomania will be defined and it will be explained how they contribute to a diagnosis of MDD or Bipolar Disorder based on the diagnostic criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Secondly, the importance of differentiating the two disorders based on MDE characteristics will be explained. Thirdly, the literature on the clinical characteristics of MDE in Bipolar and Unipolar Depression will be reviewed. Lastly, this essay will touch on what this means for clinicians in their decisions in diagnosing patients with Major Depressive Disorder or Bipolar disorder.
Bipolar Disorder or manic-depressive disorder is a disorder characterized by highs, manias, and lows, depressions, and can therefore be easily distinguished from unipolar depression, a major depressive disorder in DSM-5, by the presence of manic or hypomanic episodes (Miklowitz & Gitlin, 2014). Bipolar disorder is generally an episodic, lifelong illness with a variable course (American Psychiatric Association, 2010). There are two classifications of bipolar disorder; bipolar I disorder and bipolar II disorder. If the episodes are primarily manic but there has been at least one depressive episode, the diagnosis is bipolar I disorder (Early, 2009). If the episodes are primarily depressed but there has been at least one episode of hypomania, increased mood that is more euphoric than normal but not quite manic, the diagnosis is bipolar II disorder (Early, 2009).
(2000) explained that the prevalence of bipolar spectrum disorder is between 2.6% and 6.5%, which can be compared to the prevalence of drug abuse which is 4.4%. Bipolar can be classified as a spectrum disorder because it forms an umbrella for bipolar I disorder, bipolar II disorder, cyclothymia, and bipolar disorder not otherwise specified. Unfortunately, bipolar spectrum disorders often go undiagnosed and therefore untreated. With that, Hirschfelt et all (2000), emphasizes the importance of recognizing this disorder. With recognition, these individuals can seek intervention for this disorder and decrease its symptoms and its progression. One way to diagnose this disorder is to screen for it by performing a mood disorder questionnaire. The researchers created a one-page, self-report, paper-and-pencil inventory that can be easily evaluated and administered. The questions were derived from the DSM-IV criteria at the time, but have been updated to the newest version’s clinical
Bipolar disorder is a mental disorder characterized by an alternating or shift in moods of elevation and depression. It is also known as manic depression. This mental illness is that brings severe high and low moods, it can cause changes in sleep, energy, thinking, and behavior. “Bi” which means two or alternating between two, explains the two common episodic moods that occur in individuals with this disorder; mania and depression. According to the DSM there are multiple forms of bipolar disorder, coming in four major forms; bipolar I, bipolar II, bipolar disorder and Cyclothymia. Bipolar II which is a “major depressive episodes alternate with hypomanic episodes rather than full manic episodes.”(Barlow et al., 2014). Individual with bipolar I are similar, “except the individual experiences a full manic episode.” (Barlow et al., 2014). Lastly Cyclothymia is just a mild form of bipolar disorder. Mania episodes take into account the high elevated moods; where an individual’s is extremely energetic, excited, may partake in usually activities, for example excessive spending, promiscuity or dangerous behavior. On the other hand, there are depressive episodes, which are mark by similar symptoms as the common disorder of depression, such as extreme sadness, lack of motivation, constant fatigue and irritable. More prevalent in women, although it can occur in children and older adults, this disorder is seen to suddenly develop in ages ranging from 18 to 24. Although similar men and