Atom Economy

Satisfactory Essays
Atom economy was utilized to interrupt a reaction’s efficiency based on the use of reactant atoms. The atom economy for the bromination of toluene reaction was 63.32%, while the atom economy for the nitration of toluene reaction was 54.16%. The higher percentage in the bromination reaction indicated a more efficient reaction because more reactants yielded products completely, compared to the nitration reaction. The experimental PMI of the bromination reaction, with a value of 93.049, was high compared to the nitration of toluene reaction—with a value of 83.347. This represents that the bromination reaction was more wasteful because there was more material being used, compared to the products produced. However, bromination has a lower cost of waste and product compared to the nitration reaction by a couple dollars. When comparing the solvents of both reactions, the nitration reaction utilized more environmentally toxic solvents—such as nitric acid and sulfuric acid—compared to the bromination reaction. Therefore, the bromination reaction was a more green reaction…show more content…
There were impurities represented in the 1H NMR and FTIR of both reactions; however, the bromination reaction obtained more impurities. Even though, the PMI and there were more impurities in bromination reaction, it obtained a lower value for the cost and waste, a higher atom economy, and does not utilize as harmful solvents, when compared to the nitration reaction, which are shown in Appendix 3. Therefore, the bromination reaction was a more green reaction. Improvements that could be done to the experiment would be to repeat the experiment several times for more consistent results and to increase the drying agent or increase the drying time to minimize
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