Atomic Structure Research Paper

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Atomic structure In the nucleus of an atom there are protons and neutrons the number of protons and neutrons depends on the element and ,if it is an isotope of that element. E.g. carbon 12, carbon 12 has six neutrons six protons and 6 electrons . Electrons are located around the nucleus of the atom. Electrons are in shells, the shell closest to the nucleus is 1 , the one after 2 and so on. Each shell can only hold up to a certain number of electrons . the first can hold up to 2 , the second 8 (2+6) the third up to 18 (2+6+10). The general formula for finding out how many electrons a shell can hold is 2n^2. Electrons have a negative charge , while protons have a positive and neutrons have no charge. A atom has the same number of protons and electrons. An ion is formed when an atom loses or gains a electrons .

Radioactivity is when energy is emitted from the nucleus due to the nucleus being unstable. The 3 types of radiation are Alpha ,Beta and gamma. Alpha particles have 2 protons and two neutrons. Examples of radioactive nuclei that emit alpha radiation. Are : uranium, thorium, actinium, and radium They are very ionising so they give energy off onto whatever they are in contact with. Therefore, it loses energy more quickly. They are not very penetrating so can be stopped by a piece of paper or skin. Beta particles have 1
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isotopes have the same chemical properties as their elements but different chemical properties. This is because isotopes of an element have the same number of electrons as an atom of that particular element. The electron arrangement is what affects chemical properties, and isotopes have the same electron arrangement , so they have the same chemical properties. However the have a different number of neutrons which changes the mass number. The mass number is what determines the physical properties , such as boiling point and
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