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Atropine Involvement In Myopia Essay

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Atropine involvement in Myopia
Atropine is a non-selective muscarinic antagonist used to slow progression of myopia through several mechanisms and is known for its cycloplegic traits1, 2. Atropine acts in different ways to treat, mostly, myopic children by preventing accommodation thereby reducing the progression. It also has been known to affect the release of the dopamine neurotransmitter which has an influence on the retina and its signals sent along the optic tract1. Growth Hormone (GH) is also affected by high levels of atropine in the bloodstream and it affects the growth of the eye itself as GH secretion from the pituitary gland is inhibited in relation to excess levels of Atropine1.
Atropine drops acts as a cycloplegic to dilate the
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A dosage of 2 drops a day for 7 days a week is often prescribed4.
Short term side effects of higher dose treatment (1%) include blurry vision at near, photophobia, visual discomfort, mydriasis, allergic conjunctivitis as well as systemic conditions such as headaches and increased heart rate1,2,3 and 4. Side effects of the lower dose treatment (0.1-0.5%) are less pronounced and more tolerated. Studies involving patients prescribed with lower dosage treatments showed lower rates of progression of Myopia compared to patients prescribed with the higher dose treatments1.
Long term side effects are currently unknown but case studies have shown that there is an increase in risk for ultraviolet (UV) retinal damage as well as cataract formation due to the prolonged dilation of the patients’ pupils. Resent research also shows that within one year of treatment, there has been a reduction in the progression of 81% in myopic children and the effects of the treatment control does not continue after the first year3. A study showed that patients prescribed with the lower dosage treatment showed sign of myopic regression or “rebound” after two years of
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