Each attachment style is divided along two dimensions – the fear of abandonment and the fear of closeness. Bartholomew and Horowitz define fear of abandonment as the model of self which describes the belief of an individual to be either “worthy of love and support or not” (1991). They also define fear of closeness as the model of other which describes an individual’s
Attachment is a deep and enduring emotional bond that connects one person to another across time and space (Bowlby, 1969). Likewise, attachment theory is a psychological model that seeks to illustrate the dynamics of both long term and short- term interpersonal relationships (Waters, E.; Corcoran, D.; Anafarta, M. 2005). Additionally, attachment theory address how people respond within relationships when hurt, separated from loved ones, or when they perceive a threat (Waters et al., 2005). Attachment theory is the combined work of John Bowlby and Mary Ainsworth (Bretherton, I. 1992, p. 1). The theory predominantly draws on the ideas from doctrines such as, ethology, cybernetics, information processing and developmental psychology (Bretherton, I. 1992, p. 1). It is considered that attachment theory has revolutionized the way society thinks about the relationship between the mother and her child and the importance of
Attachment refers to the degree to which an individual is close to non-deviant others, including, family members, friends and peers. One’s willingness to conforming to norms and expectations is dependent on how attached they are to others. This element goes on to extends
The term ‘attachment’ is used by psychologists who study the child’s early relationships. An attachment is a unique emotional bond normal between a child and an adult. A theorist called John Bowlby (1970-90) had a relation to the attachment theory. In 1950s John identified that when children and
John Bowlby, the backbone of attachment theories will be discussed throughout this essay to explain and evaluate the key theories of attachment. Health and well-being which is made up of four factors ‘physical, intellectual, emotional and social ' (Jones, 2016), will also be discussed within the essay. The definition of attachment is ‘an act of attaching or the state of being attached. ' (Dictionary, 1400) This will be showed in the assignment, using theorists to analyse the meaning. Sharing the strengths and weaknesses in some theorists will help conclude this assignment.
Rudolph Schaffer and Peggy Emerson (1964) also formulated a theory of attachment based on their longitudinal study of 60 babies in Glasgow looking at the gradual development of attachments; they visited them monthly for the first year of their lives and returned again at 18 months. (Bailey et al. 2008). Similar to Bowlby’s research, Schaffer and Emerson also formulated four key stages of attachment and produced
John Bowlby (1907-1990) developed the Theory of Attachment, influenced by the work of Sigmund Freud’s 1926 theory of cupboard love, which suggested that babies form attachments with those who meet their physiological needs, for example; feeding and security. His theory has influenced practice in settings globally and has also influenced other theories and experiments. Bowlby “took a distinctly evolutionary perspective on early attachment. He argued that because newborn infants are completely helpless, they are genetically programmed to form an attachment with their mothers in order to ensure survival”. Collins et al (2012, p274-p275)
An infant with a secure attachment style has a natural bond with their parent, where they are able to trust them, at the same time leaving their side to discover and explore their surroundings. In an insecure/resistant attachment the relationship the child has with their mother or caregiver is very clingy, thus making them very upset once the caregiver is away. When the mother or caregiver is back they are not easily comforted and resist their effort in comforting them. In an insecure/avoidant attachment the infant is, “indifferent and seems to avoid the mother, they are as easily comforted by a stranger, as by their parent” (Siegler 2011, p.429). Lastly, the disorganized/disoriented attachment is another insecure attachment style in which the infant has no way of coping with stress making their behavior confusing or contradictory. Through these brief descriptions of the attachment theory, many researchers have defined the turning point in which each attachment definition can have an influence on one’s self esteem, well-being and their marital relationship.
Mary Ainsworth is known for her ‘Strange Situation’ (Custance 2010) studies with children. Her theory was that the quality of an infant’s attachment depends largely on the kind of attention the infant has received. She observed the attachment styles of children, mostly aged between 12 and 24 months, by placing them in an environment and recording their reactions to their mothers (or primary caregivers) leaving the room and then returning. Based on these observations Ainsworth concluded that there are different types of attachment. Three types of attachment are: ‘anxious-avoidant’, where the child shows little upset with the stranger, but will avoid contact with the parent on their return. The ‘securely attached’ child is one that will show moderate levels of proximity seeking towards the parents and is upset by their departure but deals with the parents return positively, often returning to play. The third type is the ‘anxious-resistant’ child; greatly upset by the parent’s departure and on reunion seems angry and will not be comforted or picked up (Custance 2010).
Attachment, according to Emde (1982) is a deep and enduring emotional bond that connects one person to another, across time and space. John Bowlby, and Evolutionist, believed that attachment was pre-programmed. In order for us to survive as a species, we needed to attach to a significant other; that its innate in us to single out a few specific individuals around us and attach to them, an so providing a survival advantage. Bowlby rationalised that the attachment between a mother and infant was unlike any other bond; very unlike the bond an infant would develop with another human. He coined it ‘Monotrophy’.
The comprehension of what defines emotional attachments or the emotional bounding to others, either in humans or other species, proofs that such emotions are not only a compound of feelings but tools that nature used in order to make us to evolve and preserve life flourishing (Custance, Deborah 2012). Anomalies on the individual process of attachment could
The word attachment defined by the Merriam Webster is a strong feeling of affection or loyalty for someone or something. Meaning that we grow a connection with somebody or a substance that is valuable about having sentiment. As an infant, we tend to attach ourselves to an individual or something that is prized in our life and by doing so, affixing it in our life. However, the logic behind linking oneself to an individual or an object, is crucial to why it is significant in our life is questioned, how are we attached to it, the reasons for its importance to why it is vital in our life, in addition, the experiences behind the impact of attachment. In this paper, we will be analyzing the process of attachment, it’s relevance to our life, and our understanding revolving around this peculiar feeling of attachment.
As humans, building relationships between others is a form of connecting and communicating. It is a social situation that is experienced every day through the course of a lifetime. The initial relationship that is made is between the mother and the child. This bond that connects two people is known to be called attachment. The theory of attachment begins at birth, and from that, continuing on to other relationships in family, friends, and romance. Attachment is taught through social experiences, however the relationship with the mother and her temperament are the key factors in shaping the infants attachment type, which
All the attachments we have affects our behavior, and our psychological state. It is necessary for our well-being and the maintenance of healthy relationships. The attachment theory proposed by John Bowlby suggests that children are born into this world already “programmed” to form attachments to others. Bowlby argued the following: “Attachment is a deep and enduring emotional bond that connects one person to another across time and space” (Bowlby,1969). So undoubtedly attachment is something we all have in common.