Each attachment style is divided along two dimensions – the fear of abandonment and the fear of closeness. Bartholomew and Horowitz define fear of abandonment as the model of self which describes the belief of an individual to be either “worthy of love and support or not” (1991). They also define fear of closeness as the model of other which describes an individual’s
Kim Bartholomew took Bowlby’s theory a step further and proposed four styles of adult attachment based on working models of self and others (Lyddon & Sherry, 2001). These styles were secure, preoccupied, dismissing and fearful. Secure adults feel self worth and expect other people to be trustworthy. Preoccupied adults feel unworthy but feel better about other people. Dismissing adults feel they are worthy but have a negative view of others. And fearfully attached adults tend to feel unworthy and untrusting of others (Lyddon & Sherry, 2001). All of the styles noted except for secure would also fall under the broader category of insecure.
John Bowlby, the backbone of attachment theories will be discussed throughout this essay to explain and evaluate the key theories of attachment. Health and well-being which is made up of four factors ‘physical, intellectual, emotional and social ' (Jones, 2016), will also be discussed within the essay. The definition of attachment is ‘an act of attaching or the state of being attached. ' (Dictionary, 1400) This will be showed in the assignment, using theorists to analyse the meaning. Sharing the strengths and weaknesses in some theorists will help conclude this assignment.
An infant avoids connection with the caregiver, as when the infant seems not to care about the caregiver's presence, departure, or return.
Attachment is an emotional bond that is created between one person to another across a life span. Attachment can be a connection between two individuals, but it is a bond that involves a regular contact with that person and also expressed distress when separated from that person. Also, attachment can play an important role during childhood, adolescent and romantic relationships. Attachment tends to be enduring and meaningful because it can last for a long time between people. However, being attached can motivate children to stay close to people that they love. Attachment can also help people build emotional bond between each others, that can have a secure base so that people can safely explore their environment. Although studies have shown that children who are securely attached can also develop an increase of independence and confidence. Meanwhile, children who are not securely attached can develop risks such as poor internal working models in life.
The insecure/preoccupied anxious attachment style preoccupied, and they seek approval from their partners. They tend to extremely clingy; consequently, pushing the person away with their self-doubts and insecurities. Individuals who have fearful/avoidant attachment style tend to have suffered abuse or sexual abuse, and they want close relationships, nonetheless they cannot bring themselves to be intimate with other people.
To begin with attachment theory, first everyone should understand what the attachment is. According to attachment means bonding between a child and caregiver or vice versa. The attachment theory is the theory that describes the long term interpersonal relationship between the humans. Also, it can be defined as the strong bond between parent and child, and later in peer and romantic relationship (Metzger, Erdman, Ng 85). It generates a specific fact that how the humans react in relationships when they get hurt, separated from loved ones and perceiving a threat. Basically the two main types of attachment are secure and insecure. Secure attachment is the attachments where mother and father are available for their child and during that time child demonstrates his or her stress and reestablish the connection (Metzger, Erdman, Ng 87). Insecure attachment is the attachment where parents are not regularly in touch with their children or they ignore their child which built a failed emotion communication (Metzger, Erdman, Ng 87). Also, it may be repeated from one generation to another until it is not recovered. However, as a result of attachment theory, it is so important for children to know about it and there are also several emotional effects on children when their parents leave to go to another county due to their connections or bond between them.
As I read the chapter about attachment in the book, I was fairly certain about the category I fell under. As Tai began talking about attachment in lecture, my hunch was solidified in my mind. I took the attachment quiz, which affirmed my beliefs. I am insecurely attached, specifically anxiously attached. At first, I didn’t really understand what caused my attachment style, I just knew that I identified the most with it. I find it very difficult to open up to others, although I often would like to. I seek approval regularly and need to be reminded that I am still loved. I tend to worry about relationships excessively. I feel as though I am almost a textbook case of insecure attachment.
Secure attachment is commonly considered the healthiest style of attachment. This bond results when a caregiver responds to the child’s needs in an appropriate manner. The child will learn that the caregiver will be responsive and available (Romero). When parents provide a safe and secure environment, a child can build a nurturing relationship. Most of all, a child will simply feel valued and loved (Greenberg; Romero).
One of these attachment styles was suggested to account for the majority of children and was depicted as a secure attachment style (Ainsworth, 1971, 1978). Secure attachment was suggested to account for 70% of the children, and consisted of traits that the child signified during the experiment, such as, responding with positively when their primary caregiver returned to them after a period of separation, despite the child signifying distress when the primary caregiver was absent (Ainsworth, 1971, 1978).The second type of attachment style Ainsworth (1971, 1978) established was an insecure attachment style; however, this was separated into two categories: anxious and avoidant. Whilst children who were categorised as having an anxious attachment style were suggested to account for 15% of children, and signified ambivalent behaviour towards their primary caregiver when they reunited with them, children who were suggested to have an avoidant attachment style accounted for 15% of children and avoided proximity or interaction with the primary caregiver on reunion Ainsworth (1971,
John Bowlby describes attachment as a “lasting psychological connectedness between human beings” (Bowlby, 1979, p194). He also describes behavior in four distinctive patterns. They are known as: Secure, Avoidant, Ambivalent, Disorganized/Disoriented (Bowlby 1979).
Attachment Theory is defined as the emotional and psychological bond between a child and their caregiver, which starts from birth and is believed to last a lifetime. (Arxcis, 2017). The first published works of attachment theory were done by John Bowlby, a child psychiatrist, in 1969, with Mary Ainsworth, a Canadian psychologist, later collaborating with Bowlby to include different attachment types. Bowlby’s theory, which was influenced from Konrad Lorenz’s idea of familial imprinting, stated that attachment bonds would begin to form up until nine months of age in an infant. From nine months, up until two to three years of age, attachment types would be observable (Arxcis, 2017).
An individual’s attachment style is conceived as a personality trait which is stable across the individual’s life span. Attachment is seen as a categorical model where individuals are either securely, avoidant or anxiously attached to others. Several studies have indicated how individuals treat attachment-related thoughts is related to their attachment style and governs how they cope with and express the loss of a loved one. When compared with secure and anxious attached adults, avoidant attachment style adults are less concerned with attachment to others. Anxious attachment style adults are worried about loss and will be hyper vigilant to relationship distress.
This leads me on to discuss the afore mentioned theory of attachment. An attachment theory is a theory in developmental psychology that highlights the importance of attachment in personal development. It is the ability for one person to form an emotional and physical attachment to another person which gives a sense of stability and security necessary to take risks, grow and develop as an individual.
Anxious/Preoccupied Attachment Style. Anxious adults would be preoccupied with the idea that the other person is not as attached as he/she is and would think what the reasons are and would be anxious about this situation. I suppose Bridget Jones from “Bridget Jones`s Diary” fit this category. High anxiety and low avoidance are typical for this category (“Attachment Styles: Overcoming Fear, Embracing Intimacy At Last”, 2012). Sometimes, they think they would scary