Attachment theory was created by John Bowlby in the late 1930’s (McLeod, 2009). He came up with this theory when he was working with children in London at a psychiatric clinic (McLeod, 2009). The children he was working with were emotionally disturbed and needed much help (McLeod, 2009). It was this experience that led Bowlby to consider the importance of the relationship between the child and the parent (emotionally and cognitively) (McLeod, 2009). More specifically, he was able to theorize that there might be a link between early infant separations with the mother and later maladjustment, which would lead Bowlby to create his attachment theory (McLeod, 2009).
One of the most studied topics in today’s psychology is the attachment theory whose common references are from attachment models by Bowlby and Ainsworth. Since its introduction, the concept has developed to become one of the most significant theoretical schemes for understanding the socio-emotional development of children at an early stage. In addition, the theory is also developing into one of the most prominent models that guide parent-child relationships. Some of the key areas in these relationships that are guided by attachment theory include child welfare, parenting programs, daycare, head start programs, schools, and hospitals. Furthermore, attachment theory plays a crucial role as a concept that informs social
The Attachment theory is a psychological, ethological and evolutionary theory that gives a descriptive and explanatory framework of understanding interpersonal relationship between human beings. Presented by John Bowlby, the important tenet of this theory is that an infant needs to develop a relationship with at least one primary caregiver for social and emotional development to progress generally.
What is attachment theory and why is it an important aspect of intimate relationships and love? The attachment theory of love maintains that the degree and quality of attachments one experiences in early life influence one’s later relationships (Strong & Cohen, 2014). John Bowlby proposed that, based on infants interactions with caregivers, infants construct expectations about relationships in the form of internal working models- cognitive representations of themselves and other people that guide their processing of social information and behavior in relationships (Sigelman & Rider, 2015). This research was further elaborated on by Mary Ainsworth and colleagues, who believed there were three styles of infant attachment: secure, anxious or ambivalent, and avoidant.
Psychologists realized that the first few years of a child 's life are vital to their personality and behavioral development. One of the most critical qualities of a child 's development is the child 's relationship with their caregiver. From determining a child 's early attachment patterns, it can help further the child 's behavior in later development, and the way the child will relate to others in her years to come. The acknowledgment of this simple fact has led many psychologists to create theories and findings to support this idea. Bowlby’s creation of the Attachment Theory sparked many famous psychologists to come up with ways to support his theory. Mary Ainsworth is known to be most famous for her “Strange Situation” procedure, which determined how attached a child is with their caregiver (usually the mother).
Attachment theory led not only to increased attention to attachments as a psychosocial process, it also led to a new understanding of child development (Bowlby, 1969). Freudian theory suggested that as libidinal drives fixed on different objects, former attachments would be broken; failure to break an attachment effectively would constitute a sort of trauma that could lead to later mental illness (Bretherton (1992). Attachment theory, however, suggested that growing children did not break former attachments, but rather (1) learned to become more active (or sovereign) within previously established attachments, and (2) added new attachments, which did not necessarily require a break with (and are not
Attachment theory is a concept that explores the importance of attachment in respect to direct development. “It is a deep and enduring emotional bond that connects one person to another across time and space” (Bowlby, 1969; McLeod, 2009). It is the relationship that develops within the first year of the infant’s life between them and their caregiver. The theory also relates to the quality of the attachment that is shown in the behavior of the infant (Rieser-Danner, 2016). Attachment theory shows that infants need a close nurturing relationship with their caregiver in order to have a healthy relationship. Lack of response from the caregiver
One of the most important factors that affect child development is the relationship of the child with their primary caregiver. This is a tenet of developmental psychology known as attachment theory. John Bowlby, the creator of this theory, wanted to examine how early childhood experiences influence personality development. Attachment theory specifically examines infant’s reactions to being separated from their primary caregiver. Bowlby hypothesized that the differences in how children react to these situations demonstrates basic behavioral differences in infancy that will have consequences for later social and emotional development.
attachment relation can help orphan overcome their adaptive problems.” (Laing , 2007) In a situation as tragic as childhood abandonment one can only hope that a child finds this positive guidance. Children who are brought up with this attachment styles grow up to be adults with healthy relationships and do not fear interactions with others and do not block others out emotionally. Adults who were raised with secure attachment styles feel comfortable with standing on their own and not depend on relationships to determine their self-worth.
In 1958, the Attachment theory came into existence. It was developed by John Bowlby on the notion that the quality of the parent -child relationship was essential for development and mental health (Howe, 2011, pg, 7). This thinking was in the context of distress shown by children when separated from their parents or when in unfamiliar surroundings. While having credit for the emergence of the attachment theory, Bowlby subsequently carried out a lot of research work with Mary Ainsworth concluding that children view their attachment figures as both a ?safe haven? to return to for comfort and protection and also a ?secure base? from which to explore their environment. The birth of children gives rise to the need to feel loved and wanted by caregivers, (Maclean and Harrison,2015 pg, 103), the absence of which might result in a range of behaviors to either
Attachment theory is the concept of the development, of a psychological and emotional bond, that creates a secure or insecure attachment to a caregiver. Attachment bonds are very important, in regards to personal development. Formulated by John Bowlby in the sixties, he discovered that a child’s development depends significantly, on the strong attachment they form with a caregiver. Functions of Bowlby’s attachment
John Bowlby developed his Attachment Theory to examine and explore the contextual relationships between a child and their caregiver and their behavioral repercussions. He describes it is “a way of conceptualizing the propensity of human beings to make strong affectional bonds to particular others and of explaining the many forms of emotional distress and personality disturbance, including anxiety, anger, depression, and emotional detachment, to which unwilling separation and loss give rise” (Bowlby, 1979, p. 127). An infant’s attachment to their primary caregiver establishes a sense of security, through protection, so the infant is able to explore the world with confidence and without threat and risk. During a child’s
Attachment theory was developed by John Bowlby in the 1960s and suggests that infants are primed to form a close, dependant bond with a primary caregiver beginning in the first moments of life. Hardy (2007) writes,
Attachment Theory Summary According to Birkenmaier, Berg-Weger, and Dewees (2014), Attachment Theory (A.T.) was proposed by John Bowlby who hypothesized that children and caregivers bond excessively during the primary months of a child’s life. (p.108) Birkenmaier, Berg-Weger, and Dewees further claims that the bonding or lack of bonding critically impacts the person's ability to attach and make meaningful relationships throughout life (p. 109). Furthermore, Bowlby asserts “children who form an attachment to an adult that is, an enduring and socio-emotional relationship are more likely to survive” (Kirst-Ashman and Zastrow, p. 147). Therefore, if a child’s attachment process is interrupted it can cause issues