Nanotechnology is the control and manipulation of variously sized particles ranging between 1 to 100 nanometers (Doll, Raman, Dey, & Burkhard, 2012). Virus and virus-like particles, due to their multiple capsid sites, allow for the addition of peptides and the manipulation of their genetic material and protein subunits (Strable & Finn, 2009). Scientists, as they learn more about the production and alteration of these particles, have discovered their true chemical flexibility and ability to assemble into useful nanotechnologies. As a result of these unique qualities, virus-like particles are key particles in nanotechnology, especially in areas such as vaccination, tumor targeting treatments, and other scientific fields (Strable & Finn,…show more content… Nanotechnology, the manipulation of matter on the molecular scale, can be applied to numerous scientific fields, such as medicine, surface chemistry, micro fabrication, and organic chemistry (Destito, Schneemann & Manchester, 2009). In general, these small-sized particles are used to improve the functioning of commercial products and, in the subsection of nanomedicine, are used for therapeutics, tumor targeting, and vaccines (Crisci, Bárcena & Montoya, 2012). For example, the use of molecular nanotechnology improves vehicle fuel cells and catalytic converters, helps filter wastewater, and strengthens commercial products, such as bowling balls and glue. (Doll et. al., 2012). Harisinghani, through multiple experiments, also discovered that nanoparticles such as iron oxide can be used to image lymph nodes in patients with prostate cancer (Destito et. al., 2009). However, even with their vast range of applications, nanotechnology continues to raise issues on its toxicity and negative impact on the environment (Destito et. al., 2009).
Viruses In 1844, it was demonstrated by Adolph Mayer that infectious agents were still being transmitted to plants even when the infected sap was filtered through the Chamberland-Pasteur filter, a filter which isolated all bacteria from a liquid sample. As a result, new transmittable particles were discovered: viruses. Viruses are