Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD) Essay

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You have probably heard and may even have used the term hyperactivity. The notion is a modern one: there were no hyperactive children 50 to 60 years ago. Today, if anything, the term is applied too often and too widely. The American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (AACAP) estimates that all teachers have in their classrooms at least one child with ADHD (Simmons, RG. 1993).

Actually, hyperactivity is not one particular condition: it is “a set of behaviors” such as excessive restlessness and short attention span that are quantitatively and qualitatively different from those children of the same sex, mental age, and socioeconomic status (Gutskey, T.R. 1991).

Today most psychologists agree that the main
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Still others may get lost in the directions along the way. A careful observer can watch and see where the attention process breaks down for a particular child.

Symptoms of inattention, as listed in the DSM-IV, are:

• Often fails to give close attention to details or makes careless mistakes in schoolwork, or other activities
• Often has difficulty sustaining attention in tasks or play activities
• Often does not seem to listen when spoken to directly
• Often does not follow through on instructions and fails to finish schoolwork, chores, or duties in the workplace (not due to oppositional behavior or failure to understand instructions)
• Often has difficulty organizing tasks and activities
• Often avoids, dislikes, or is reluctant to engage in tasks that require sustained mental effort (such as schoolwork or homework)
• Often loses things necessary for tasks or activities (e.g., toys, school assignments, pencils, books, or tools)
• Often easily distracted by extraneous stimuli
• Often forgetful in daily activities (Soar, R.S. & Soar, R.M. 1993)

What causes ADHD?

ADHD is a neurobiologically based developmental disability estimated to affect between 3-5 percent of the school age population (Panksepp, J. 1998). No one knows exactly what causes ADHD. Scientific evidence suggests that the disorder is genetically transmitted in many cases and results from a chemical imbalance