Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Essay

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Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder


Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), once called hyperkinesis or minimal brain dysfunction, is one of the most common mental disorders among children. (Elia, Ambrosini, Rapoport, 1999) It affects 3 to 5 percent of all children, with approximately 60% to 80% of these children experiencing persistence of symptoms into adolescence and adulthood, causing a lifetime of frustrated dreams and emotional pain. There are two types of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: an inattentive type and a combined type. The symptoms of ADHD can be classified into three categories: inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. This behaviour stops ADHD sufferers from focussing
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Stimulants such as Concerta, Metadate CD, Ritalin LA, Adderall XR, and Focalin are discussed in the second experiment. On the other hand the third aspect of research on ADHD provides information not only on stimulants but also on EEG biofeedback and the effect of parental style of the child’s symptoms.

Experiment 1

Research completed by the American Psychiatric Association was assessing the efficiency of atomoxetine, a stimulant drug used for the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. This experiment involved 171 children and adolescents suffering from ADHD randomly treated with either atomoxetine or placebo. Atomoxetine is a new investigational compound, which has been helpful for children and adults with ADHD when taken twice daily. Atomoxetine, such as other stimulant drugs, is a “potent inhibitor of the presynaptic norepinephrine transporter with minimal affinity for the other noradrenergic receptors or the other neurotransmitter transporters or receptors” (Michelson, et al, 2002). This neurotransmitter plays an important role in modulating the brain systems that control attention and activity. (Brown University, 2003) The aim of this research was to examine whether an effective drug taken twice daily could also be effective administered only once a day. When taken twice daily atomoxetine may result in side effects such as gastrointestinal incidents, like nausea or vomiting. In
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