75% of youth in correctional facilities for delinquency are not in for a serious violent felony crime (Ross). Many minors in such facilities are held because their families cannot take care of them. Drug use, often stemming from the parents, is prevalent in teens detained in juvenile detention. Additionally, teen pregnancy and sexual abuse are common among the incarcerated young adults. Most of them have some level of a psychiatric disorder, however, a small percentage of them actually receive treatment. An unhealthy home environment, drug addiction, and mental trauma all contribute to the cycle of juvenile detention. In fact, 66% of youth who have been arrested will become repeat offenders within 24 months (“21 Juvenile Repeat Offenders
When a parent is arrested the child’s life is most definitely affected. Most of the time, since they are children they do not have a say in the matter of what happens to them. One sixteen year old names Terrance says, “I think they shouldn’t have took my mama to jail that first time. Just gave her a ticket or something, and make her go to court, and give her some community service. Some type of alternative, where she can go to the program down the street, or they can come check on her at the house.” (p.40) The child sees that their mother has been in and out of prison and saw no difference. Prison has not taught her a lesson due to her frequent sentences. Her child is left hopeless and alone to keep the electricity on, feed himself, and protect
The background literature for this topic has been subdivided into three categories. To understand the impact of incarceration we must first look at the parent-child relationship, warm parental interactions are associated with effective problem solving in adolescence and adulthood, while hostile interactions are associated with destructive adolescent behavior (Ge, Best, Conger & Simons, 1996a; Rueter & conger, 1995). We must observe the
Children are forced to forfeit their homes, their safety, their public and self-image, and their primary source of comfort and affection (Bernstein 2005). A national survey found that almost 70% of children when present when their parent was arrested (Bernstein 2005). Researcher Christina Jose Kamfner interviewed children who had witnessed their mother’s arrest and found that many suffered from post-traumatic stress symptoms; they could not concentrate or sleep and had flashbacks of the arrest (Bernstein 2005). The majority of the children at the scene of an arrest are taken away in a police car which is more intimidating than to say if they were taken away in a child welfare worker’s car (Bernstein 2005). Many of these children (is no other family is available) are shuffled around in the course of an arrest; the hospital for physical examinations first, then the police station for appropriate , “paperwork,” then to a juvenile detention center and lastly, they are deposited at a foster home (Bernstein 2005). Anyone can vouch that the process of what to do after the arrest is clearly a traumatizing one at that. After the arrest, children wait anxiously for the level of the sentence that their parent has to face. In most cases, children are unaware of why their parent is being sentenced because they were unaware that their parent was involved in the crime. Carl, for example, only remembered
An estimated 9.2 million to 15.8 million children are considered "at-risk" in this country encompassing all ages from 13 to 19 years old. These youth are at-risk because they are at a crossroad: one leads to successful transition to adulthood, the other to dependency and negative long-term consequences. Youth typically considered or identified as at-risk are more likely to become pregnant, use drugs and/or alcohol, drop out of school, be unemployed, engage in violence and face an increased likelihood of a host of mental health problems, which in turn places them at high risk for entering the juvenile and criminal justice system.
Being the child of an incarcerated parent has substantial amounts of negative influences on youth today. As young children, many consider their parents as role models. Someone who they can confide in, someone who will preserve them, and someone who will guide them through life. For most youngsters having an incarcerated parent, means that their admirable example in life is absent. Not having a parent present in one's childhood leads to innumerable negative outcomes and impacts.
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is the most commonly found disorder in children in the United States. Statistics show that the male to female ratio for children with ADHD is eight to one. 4.4 million Children between the ages four to seventeen have diagnosed with ADHD (Cheng Tina L et al.). African American children are at a higher risk for having ADHD. Caucasian children are least likely to have ADHD. 2.5 million children receive medication for ADHD, but African American children are half as likely as Caucasian children to take ADHD medication(Cheng Tina L et al.). If African American children do not take medication for ADHD the child will most likely do drugs, drop out of school, or find it harder to receive a job when they get older. There is not cure for children who have ADHD, but there is medication children can take to decrease their hyperactive and impulsive symptoms. Adderall, Methylin, Concerta, and Focalin are some of the medications given for children who have ADHD. Methylphenidate is the most common medication prescribed by physicians for ADHD. “Methylphenidate takes effects within fifteen minutes of taking it and lasts between four and twelve hours a day.” (Hughes, Katsiyannis, and Ryan). Although medication is out there for the children to take, some of the medication given haves negative side effects. ADHD is not preventable. Parents should not only avoid drinking, smoking, or doing any other type of drugs to prevent ADHD, but also to prevent
Many of these incarcerated men and women play various roles in their communities. They are parents, siblings, sons, and daughters and have family members who depend upon them for social and economic support. The incarceration of a parent has a particularly destabilizing role in a child’s life, oftentimes leaving the child in the care of a single parent, relative, or foster home (Levy-Pounds, 2006). Parental incarceration is considered an Adverse Childhood Experience (ACE), a designation for certain
The author attempts to glide over the emotional health and well being and the extent to which the child will be affected by parental incarceration. Most children with incarcerated parents experiance a broad range of emotions, including fear, anxiety, anger, sadness,loneliness, and guilt (The Osborne Association 1993). They may also act out inapproperiately, become disruptive in the classroom or engage in other anti sociol behaviors. Often, their academic performance deteriorates and they develop other school related difficulties. The emotional and behavioral difficulties have been linked to a variety of factors, including parent child seperation and social stigma which the author fails to discuss. The book did not contributed to my understanding of the scope of the problem of parental incarceration and the effects on the children. However reviewing existing literature, though scarce re interated my hypothesis that children of incarcerated parents experience a variety of negative consequences. Nature of the parents, crime, length of sentence, availability of family support or all important factors to be considered affecting these children.
There are more that 2 million men and women incarcerated in U.S. prisons and the majority of them are parents of children under the age of 18. According to the U.S. Department of Justice, parents in prison had approximately 2.6 million children at the time they were admitted to prison and of those children, approximately 1 million will reach the age of 18 at the time of the inmates expected release (Petit 2012. Previous research has shown that these children have been shown to underperform academically (Foster and Hagan 2009), have a higher risk of
According to the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation, children who have at least one parent in prison at the age of six are twice as likely to be involved in criminal activities as their peers (ASPE n.d.). We have heard it said many times; like father, like son. It means that, in traits such as looks, speech, or character, children are much like their parents. Growing up in a difficult situation often has some negative effects. Children of incarcerated individuals in particular have a rough time. They struggle to have good relationships with their parents, if any at all. Many develop mental and physical health issues due to such hardships. Therefore, the best method of ensuring healthy development
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder or ADHD which is often referred to as childhood hyperactivity, it 's a severe and chronic disorder for children. It is one of the most prevalent childhood disorders, and affects 3% to 5% of the school-age population. Boys outnumber girls three or more to one. Children with ADHD can experience many behavioral difficulties that often manifest in the form of inattention, being easily distracted, being impulsive, and hyperactivity. As a result, children with ADHD may develop emotional, social, developmental, academic, and family problems because of the frustrations and problems they are constantly experiencing. (Shea)
Where parents and their children reside can have a huge impact on their lives in many different aspects. Children with parents that are incarcerated, are typically raised in poor and poverty stricken neighborhoods. “Of course there are middle-class and even some wealthy offenders, but when proportioned, over 90 percent of offenders are what we would define as poor” (Maier 93). “Poverty is the big background picture, the framework, the major context for crime, criminal behavior, and incarceration” (Maier 93). Although it may not be preventable, living in areas where crime occurs so regularly and drugs are at such easy access, it is hard for these parents to avoid it all and they end up falling short to the temptation of it all. So for those living in
It’s normal for a child to occasionally forget to do their homework, get fidgety when they lose interest in an activity, or speak out of turn during class time. But inattentiveness, hyperactivity, and impulsivity are all signs of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). ADHD is a neuro-development disorder and can start as early as three years old throughout adulthood. People with ADHD have trouble focusing on tasks and activities, this can have a negative impact on the individual in different ways. It can make the child feel alone, incompetent, and powerless and those that don’t understand this behavior only intensified their struggle. Family and schools have a major impact on the life of a child suffering with ADHD. Parents who
Teen delinquency can also arise when a teen’s parent is incarcerated. Teens that have a parent in prison are affected emotionally, behaviorally and psychologically (Johnson 461). The incarceration of a parent can gravely affect an individual because the parent is not prevalent throughout the teen’s life. The teen then becomes angry and acts out because they have so much emotional pain bottled up inside. “The children of incarcerated parents are at a high risk for a number of negative behaviors that can lead to school failure, delinquency, and intergenerational incarceration” (Simmons 10). Teens with incarcerated parents lack the assistance of parental figures. In True Notebooks, Sister Janet says that the incarcerated teens never had anyone to lead them in the right path or show that adults care about them. She says that because of the lack of direction the teens never had the opportunity to do better for themselves (Salzman 26). There is also a major cycle that exists between incarcerated parents and their children that puts these teens at risk. On April 10th of 2008, a conference at Bryant University was held to discuss the concerning issues of teens with incarcerated parents. During the conference, Patricia Martinez, director of the Rhode Island Department of Children: Youth and families stated that “We want to break the cycle of intergenerational crime. I have heard of so many caseloads managing 18-year-olds who had a parent