Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder ( Adhd ) Essay

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Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) represents the most common externalizing psychopathology in adolescents, affecting 3-9% of the population. It is a developmental disorder and a chronic condition with associated symptoms and impairment that persists in approximately three-fourths of the cases into adolescence and in half of the cases into adulthood (Çuhadaroglu-Çetin, Füsun, et al., 2013). Adolescents with high levels of impulsivity and inattention have an increased risk for school and occupational failure, difficulties in parent/peer relationships and social and problem-solving skills, executive dysfunctions, emotional self-regulation problems, antisocial behaviors and criminal activity, substance use, and other psychiatric problems when they grow up. About 20% of adults with ADHD also have major depression or bipolar disorder. Up to 50% have an anxiety disorder. Bipolar disorder plus ADHD can be very difficult to differentiate from ADHD alone in adults, as well as in children. About 20% of adults with ADHD have learning disorders, usually dyslexia and auditory processing problems (UMD, 2013). Compared to adults without ADHD, those with the condition tend to achieve lower educational levels, earn less money, and be fired more often. They may also be more likely to be self-employed. About 1 in 5 adults with ADHD also contend with substance abuse. Studies indicate that adolescents with ADHD are twice as likely to smoke cigarettes as their peers who do not have
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