Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most frequently diagnosed

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Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most frequently diagnosed neuro-developmental disorder [1] The percentage of children between the ages of 4 and 17 years, diagnosed with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has consistently risen from 7.8% in 2003 to 9.5% in 2007. As of 2011 11.0% (6.4 million) have been diagnosed with ADHD. When comparing 2003 to 2011 data this indicates that the proportion of children having a history of (ADHD) increased by 42% in less than a decade. Suggesting an increase of 2 million additional U.S. children/adolescents aged 4 to 17 years had been diagnosed with ADHD in 2011 in the United States alone. There are gender differences with boys (13.2%) more likely to obtain a diagnosis when…show more content…
DSM-5 Criteria
The following changes were made in the DSM-5 for the diagnosis of ADHD:
• Symptoms can occur by age 12 rather than by age 6;
• Several symptoms are required to be present in multiple settings rather than just some impairment in more than one setting.
• Descriptions of symptoms now include examples for older ages 17 to adult.
• Older adolescents and adults must exhibit 5 instead of 6 of criteria

Pharmacologic Strategies
Pharmacotherapy is an important component in the treatment and management of symptoms associated with ADHD. Stimulants are the first approach to effective treatment of hyperactivity and disruptive behaviors and clinical studies suggest a patient success response rate of 70%-80.
• Stimulant Therapy is used to treat both moderate and severe ADHD and can increase alertness, attention, and energy in addition to elevating blood pressure, heart rate, and respiration. This medication therapy may help children and adolescents focus their thoughts and ignore distractions to increase success across settings including at school, work, and home. The most commonly used stimulant medications are
methylphenidate and the
amphetamines. Evidence demonstrates that these
stimulants are safe when
prescribed to healthy children monitored
under medical supervision.21 (see table 1)
• Non-Stimulant therapy is another option to treat ADHD as approximately 30 percent of patients fail to respond to stimulant therapy and need to pursue

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