Auditory Cues And Visual Cues

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In this section, we discuss both studies using multimodal cues (e.g. audiovisual cue) and those using different cue modalities in different conditions (e.g. auditory cue in one condition and visual cue in another condition). To date, evidence from research on healthy individuals is very limited compared to studies with unimodal cues. Nevertheless, experimental evidence suggests that multimodal cues such as audiovisual cues can be linked to motor adaptation of healthy individuals, enabling them to simultaneously adapt to two directionally opposite perturbations (Osu, Hirai, Yoshioka, & Kawato, 2004).
There is some research on neural structures that are involved in processing contextual cues with different modalities. A PET study investigated whether different cue modalities (visual, auditory, and somatosensory) would produce activation in different regions of the brain (Weeks, Honda, Catalan, & Hallett, 2001). However, no significant effects of the cue modality were found on activity of either cortical or subcortical regions. Meanwhile, the study observed a larger activation of bilateral posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) when subject’s motor action (button pressing) was externally triggered than when it was internally triggered. This suggested that PCC was involved in motor movement triggered by external cues in general. On the other hand, an fMRI study on attention demonstrated that auditory, visual, and tactile cues activated their respective cortical regions in a simple
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